Chapter 25 Study Guide Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 25 Study Guide Deck (21):
1

2

Urinary system organs


kidneys (2)

ureters (2)

urinary bladder

urethra

3


kidney functions


filter blood plasma

separater waste from want

regulate blood volume and pressure

control blood osmolarity

secrete renin

erythropoientin

calcitriol

regulate blood pH

carry out gluconeogenesis in times of starvation

4


Excretion


process of isolating wastes from the body fluids and eliminating them

5


Nitrogenous wastes


urea

uric acid

nucleic acid

6

kidney location

against the posterior abdominal wall at level of T12 to L 3

RT kidney slightly lower due to space occupied by the liver above it

They are retroperitoneal

adrenal gland lies superior

 

7


kidney appearance

gland consisting of more than 1 million nephrons

medial surface has slit (hilum) where blood vessels, nerves and the ureter enter and exit

kidney bean shaped in physical appearance

8


blood flow through kidney

input to filtration


renal artery

segmental artery

interlobar artery

arcuate artery

interlobular arteries

afferent arteriole

glomerulus

efferent arteriole

peritubular capillaries

 

9


blood flow through kidney

filtration to output


peritubular capillaries

vasa recta

interlobular veins

arcuate vein

interlobar vein

renal vein

10


funtion of nephron


receives blood and filters it of waste material

11


structure of nephron

 


glomerular capsule

nephron loop

proximal convoluted tubule

distal convoluted tubule

12


Filtration


process of removing elements of the blood

13


reabsorption


removes useful solutes from the waste and returns them to the blood

14


secretion


the release of a chemical by a cell or gland

15


PCT renal tubule function

tubular reabsorption

tubular secretion

16


DCT renal tubule function


reabsorption of sodium

clacium

chloride

 and water

secretes

potassium

hydrogen

17


PCT absorbed chemicals


sodium

potassium

magnesium

phosphate

chloride

bicarbonate

glucose

amino acids

lactate

protein

smaller peptides

urea

uris acid

18


PCT secretions


hydrogen

bicarbonite ions

ammonia

urea

uric acid

creatine

bile acids

some drugs (aspirin, penicillin and morphine)

19


ureter anatomy


tube about 25cm long

posterior to the bladder and enters from below

3 layers

adventitia

muscularis

mucosa

20


urinary bladder anatomy


muscular sac

highly distensible

holds up to 800mL of urine

detrusor muscle

rugae

trigone

21


Urethra anatomy


internal sphincter

external sphincter

external urethra orifice

female

3-4 cm long

male

15cm long