Chapter 6 study guide intro to bones Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 6 study guide intro to bones Deck (45):
1


Skeletal system anatomy


bones, cartilage and ligaments

Osteology

2


skeletal system functions


support

movement

protection'blood formation'electrolyte balance

pH balance

detoxification

3


bone as an organ


osseous tissue

(bone)

blood

bone marrow

cartilage

adipose

nervous

fibrous connective

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osseous tissue


connective tissue in chich matrix material is hardened by calcium phosphate and other minerals

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shape of bones


long

short

flat

irregular

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long bones


narrow

long shaft (diaphysis)

expanded head (epiphysis) at each end

filled with spongy bone

bone marrow occupies shaft and spaces in head

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long bone

2

Red Marrow

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long bone

3

Epiphyseal line

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long bone

4

yellow marrow

marrow cavity

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long bone

5

periosteum

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long bone

6

diaphysis

shaft

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long bone

7

compact bone

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longbone
 

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spongy bone

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long bone

9

epiphysis

head

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longbone

10

articular cartilage

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bone cells


osteogenic cells

osteoblasts

osteocytes

osteoclasts

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osteogenic cells


in endosteum arise to form osteoblasts

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osteoblasts


bone forming cells that synthesize matrix to mineralize the bone

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osteocytes


former osteoblasts that are trapped in the matrix they deposited

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osteoclasts


bone dissolving cells on the surface of the bone

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bone matrix

(ground substance)


1/3 organic and 2/3 inorganic matter by dry weight

 

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inorganic matrix

85% hydroxyapatite (crystalline calcium phosphate)

10% clacium carbonate

5% other minerals

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organic matrix


collagen

large protein-carbohydrate complexes called

glycosaminoglycans

proteoglycans

glycoproteins

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mineral funtionality


resistent to compression

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protein component funtionality


resistent to tesnion

flexibility

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compact bone


large cylyndrical units (osteons)

 

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osteons


collagen fibers enclose osteons

concentric lamellae around central canal

osteocytes in lacunae conneted by canaliculi to other osteocytes

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spongy bone


thin tribelculae and spicules of osseous tissue

maximun strength in proportion to its light weight

 

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spongy bone matrix


arranged in lamellae but very few osteons

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Red marrow

 

blood forming marrow

medullary spaces of nearly all bone in children

adults is limited to axial skeleon and heads of femur and humerus

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yellow marrow


fatty marrow

most red marrow changes to yellow in adults

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bone formation


intramembranous ossification

endochondral ossification

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intramembranous ossification


mesenchyme condenses into a sheel of soft tissue with osteogenic cells

osteogenics turn into osteoblasts

they deposit osteoid tissue then calcify it

becomes spopngy bone

compact bone is formed by filling in the spaces

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endochondral ossification


hyaline cartilage is replaced by bone

chondrocytes of cartilage enlarge and form ossicification center

cartilage lacunae breakdown and merge into primary marrow cavity and chondrocytes die

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secondary ossification site

(endochondral ossification)


appears in the middle of epi[hysis near time of birth

ossification proceeds outward creating secondary marrow cavity and forming the epiphydeal plate

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long bone growth

length


increase by interstitial growth at the epiphyseal plates

5 zones

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5 zones of long bone growth


zone of reserve cartilage

zone of cell proliferation

zone of cell hypertrophy

zone of calcification

zone of deposited bone

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zone of reserve cartilage

farthest from marrow space

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zone oof cell proliferation


chondrocytes multiply and form longitudinal columns of cells

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zone of hypertrophy


chondrocytes enlarge

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zone of calcification


where matrix becomes temporarily calcified

nearest the marrow

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zone of bone deposition


where lacunae break down

chondrocytes die

bone is deposited

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bone growth thickness

appositional growth


depostition of new osseous tissue on the surface by process similar to intramembranous ossification

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bone remodeling


osteoblasts and osteoclasts reshape bones throughout life to adapt to the stresses places on them

 

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