Chapter 3 - Federalism Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 3 - Federalism Deck (18):
1

Federalism

A political system with multiple levels of government, in which each level has independent authority over some important policy areas

2

Confederation

A political system with multiple levels of government, in which lowerlevel governments retain full sovereignty and cannot be compelled by the national government to act

3

Dual federalism

A political system in which each level of government—national and state—is sovereign in its own sphere of policy authority

4

Cooperative federalism

A political system in which both levels of government—national and state—are active in nearly all areas of policy and share sovereign authority

5

Intergovernmentalism

A system in which multiple levels of government are active in a given policy area

6

Intergovernmental relations

The relationship between the different levels of government. For example, it may pertain to the struggle between the national government and the states for authority over a specific policy domain, or it may pertain to the coordination of action between the levels in an effort to achieve common goals

7

Elastic clause

(necessary and proper clause) The provision
in Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution that states that
Congress can make whatever laws are “necessary and
proper” in order to provide the means to carry out its enumerated powers

8

Commerce clause

An enumerated power listed in Article I, Section 8, of the
Constitution that grants Congress the power to “regulate
Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes”

9

Grants-in-aid

Money that is distributed to lower-level governments with the purpose of funding special projects

10

Categorical grants

Grants that narrowly define how the funds are to be spent. These grants normally come with conditions that need to be satisfied in order for the money to be used

11

Revenue–sharing

A principle whereby the national government and the lower-level governments cooperate in funding a project

12

Block grants

Sums of money transferred to lower-level governments such that, as long as the general purpose of the grant is met, the lower-level governments are allowed considerable freedom in deciding how the money is spent

13

Ballot initiative

An election in which citizens vote directly on a proposition raised by a group of fellow citizens

14

Referendum

An election in which citizens vote directly on whether to overturn a bill or a constitutional amendment that has been passed by the legislature

15

Recall election

An election during the term of an elected government official in which citizens vote directly on whether to remove the individual from office

16

Home rule

The constitutional or legal authority held by local governments that allows them to govern themselves with little or no interference from the state

17

Unitary system

A political system in which the national government holds ultimate authority over all areas of policy and over the actions of subunit governments

18

Reserved powers

Those powers not granted to the national government by the Constitution, and therefore reserved to the states