Chapter 4 - Civil Rights and Liberties Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4 - Civil Rights and Liberties Deck (12):
1

Civil rights

Rights that (1) enable individuals to engage in activities central to citizenship or legal immigrant status, such as voting or petitioning the government; (2) ensure all individuals receive due process and equal treatment under the law; or (3) guarantee freedom from discriminatory actions by others that seek to deny an individual’s full status as an equal member of society

2

Civil liberties

Freedoms protected from interference by the government, such as freedom of speech and freedom of religion

3

Bill of Rights

The first 10 amendments to the Constitution, which enumerate a set of liberties not to be violated by the government and a set of rights to be protected by the government

4

Jim Crow laws

Laws passed after the Civil War to establish a system of segregation of public facilities and private establishments that made African Americans second-class citizens

5

Civil rights movement

A social movement of the 1950s and 1960s focused primarily on the situation of African Americans, but also promoting the goals that all people be treated as equals under the law and that discrimination based on race, religion, ethnicity, gender, and place of origin be eliminated

6

Due process

The right to legal protections against arbitrary deprivation of life, liberty, or property

7

Equal protection

The principle that laws passed and enforced by the states must apply fairly to all individuals

8

Incorporation

The process by which rights and liberties established by the Bill of Rights are applied to state and local governments through the Fourteenth Amendment

9

Strict scrutiny

The highestlevel standard used by the Supreme Court to determine whether a law is compatible with the Constitution. A law subject to this standard is considered unconstitutional unless it advances a “compelling state interest” and represents the least intrusive means

10

Rational basis test

The lowest-level standard used by the Supreme Court to determine whether a law is compatible with the Constitution. A law subject to this standard is assumed to be constitutional as long as its goals are clearly linked to its means

11

Intermediate scrutiny

An intermediate standard used by the Supreme Court to determine whether a law is compatible with the Constitution. A law subject to this standard is considered constitutional if it advances “an important government objective” and is “substantially related” to the objective

12

Affirmative action

Efforts to redress previous discrimination against women and minorities through active measures to promote their employment and educational opportunities