Chapter 3 Outline-Animal reproduction Flashcards Preview

Agriculture Science 100 > Chapter 3 Outline-Animal reproduction > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 3 Outline-Animal reproduction Deck (72)
Loading flashcards...

What is needed in order to measure reproductive efficiency

-litter size
-calving rate
-days open: 3 months open for a cow to get pregnant
-eggs hatched


What are the three parts to the male reproductive system

-secondary sex glands and organs
-external copulatory organ


What are the two vital functions of the testicles

-production of male reproductive cells, spermatozoa or sperm.
-production of male hormone: testosterone


What is the function of the testicles

To transport the spermatozoa from the site of formation to be deposited into the female tract


What does the testes consist of

-vas deferens
-secondary sex glands(3 glands)


What are the four functions of the epididymis

-concentrates sperm: 4 billion per mL


What is the function of the vas deferens



What is the function if then glands and what are the three different glands

Glands produce bulk of fluid
-seminal vesicles
-Cowper's glands
-prostate gland


What is the process that the external copulation organ goes through

-during excitation
Sigmoid flexure: must straighten to mate female, S shaped curve of the penis
-following copulation
Retractor penis muscle: takes penis back in for protection


Where do the testes need to be at the right temperature

The scrotum


What happens in the scrotum

-spermatogenesis: process of taking a round cell to a sperm, takes 6-8 weeks, required cooler temperature


What is the function of the Inguinal canal

Small opening in the body cavity where the testes descend through to reach the scrotum


What is cryptorchidism.

This is when 1 or both testes don't descend into scrotum and it is a genetically tied trait.
-One testes- unilateral
Reproductively impaired
-two testes- bilateral


When do the female and male reproductive systems become functional

They do not become functional until puberty- age at sexual maturity


How is puberty defined in the male

-the ability to produce viable sperm and a desire to mate
-influenced by the hormone, testosterone


What does follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) function and where does it come from

-released by the anterior pituitary
-required for spermatogenesis(sperm production)


What does luteinizing hormone (LH) do and where does it come from

-released by the anterior pituitary
-stimulates the production of testosterone by the testes


Explain puberty in females

-1 month of age: follicles start to appear on the ovaries
-estrous cycle: 5 to 14 months of age( depends on species)
-age at which puberty occurs varies with the species and breed


What happens at first estrus

-first estrus sometimes produces no egg
-estrus is caused by the hormone estrogen and influenced by:
Weight, age, and body fat
-acceptance of the male
-occurrence of ovulation


What is the percent body weight in which puberty occurs for dairy cattle, beef cattle, and sheep

-Dairy cattle- 30 to 40% of adult weight
-Beef cattle- 45 to 55% of adult weight
-Sheep- 40 to 50% of adult weight


What is the function of the ovaries

-produce ovum or egg
-produce hormones( estrogen and progesterone)


What are the ovaries homologous with

-the male testes
-they remain in the body cavity near the kidneys and do not descend


What does monotocous mean and give some examples

It means to give birth to one young at each gestation period
- one ovum is produced each estrous cycle

Ex: cow, mare, and ewe


What does polytocous mean and give an example

-litter bearing animals
The sow:
the female produces 10 to 25 ova in each cycle and gives birth to several young each gestation period


What tissue produces the ovum and where is it located

-The functional layer is the parenchyma
-it contains the ovarian follicles and the cells that produce the ovarian hormones
-near the surface of the ovary


What happens to the follicle following different stages of puberty

-the follicle becomes the mature ovum (Graafian follicle)
Follicle has fluid and contains ova: looks like blister
-produces estrogen which must be elevated to show heat


What is the Graafian Follicle

-looks like a blister on the ovary
-is caused by follicle stimulating hormone (FHS) from the anterior pituitary gland
-FHS causes follicle to enlarge


What hormone does the pituitary produce and what is it's function

It produces LH which causes a rupture (ovulation) of this follicle and a release of an ovum (egg)


What happens immediately after ovulation

The cavity left by the vacated ovum now becomes the corpus luteum (CL)


What hormone does the corpus luteum produce and what is it's function

It produces progesterone
-suppresses further heats(estruses)
-important for maintaining a pregnancy