Chapter 3 Outline-Animal reproduction Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 3 Outline-Animal reproduction Deck (72)
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0

What is needed in order to measure reproductive efficiency

-litter size
-calving rate
-days open: 3 months open for a cow to get pregnant
-eggs hatched

1

What are the three parts to the male reproductive system

-Testicles
-secondary sex glands and organs
-external copulatory organ

2

What are the two vital functions of the testicles

-production of male reproductive cells, spermatozoa or sperm.
-production of male hormone: testosterone

3

What is the function of the testicles

To transport the spermatozoa from the site of formation to be deposited into the female tract

4

What does the testes consist of

-epididymis
-vas deferens
-secondary sex glands(3 glands)

5

What are the four functions of the epididymis

-transport
-maturation
-storage
-concentrates sperm: 4 billion per mL

6

What is the function of the vas deferens

Transport

7

What is the function if then glands and what are the three different glands

Glands produce bulk of fluid
-seminal vesicles
-Cowper's glands
-prostate gland

8

What is the process that the external copulation organ goes through

-during excitation
Sigmoid flexure: must straighten to mate female, S shaped curve of the penis
-following copulation
Retractor penis muscle: takes penis back in for protection

9

Where do the testes need to be at the right temperature

The scrotum

10

What happens in the scrotum

-spermatogenesis: process of taking a round cell to a sperm, takes 6-8 weeks, required cooler temperature

11

What is the function of the Inguinal canal

Small opening in the body cavity where the testes descend through to reach the scrotum

12

What is cryptorchidism.

This is when 1 or both testes don't descend into scrotum and it is a genetically tied trait.
-One testes- unilateral
Reproductively impaired
-two testes- bilateral
Sterile

13

When do the female and male reproductive systems become functional

They do not become functional until puberty- age at sexual maturity

14

How is puberty defined in the male

-the ability to produce viable sperm and a desire to mate
-influenced by the hormone, testosterone

15

What does follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) function and where does it come from

-released by the anterior pituitary
-required for spermatogenesis(sperm production)

16

What does luteinizing hormone (LH) do and where does it come from

-released by the anterior pituitary
-stimulates the production of testosterone by the testes

17

Explain puberty in females

-1 month of age: follicles start to appear on the ovaries
-estrous cycle: 5 to 14 months of age( depends on species)
-age at which puberty occurs varies with the species and breed

18

What happens at first estrus

-first estrus sometimes produces no egg
-estrus is caused by the hormone estrogen and influenced by:
Weight, age, and body fat
-acceptance of the male
-occurrence of ovulation

19

What is the percent body weight in which puberty occurs for dairy cattle, beef cattle, and sheep

-Dairy cattle- 30 to 40% of adult weight
-Beef cattle- 45 to 55% of adult weight
-Sheep- 40 to 50% of adult weight

20

What is the function of the ovaries

-produce ovum or egg
-produce hormones( estrogen and progesterone)

21

What are the ovaries homologous with

-the male testes
-they remain in the body cavity near the kidneys and do not descend

22

What does monotocous mean and give some examples

It means to give birth to one young at each gestation period
- one ovum is produced each estrous cycle

Ex: cow, mare, and ewe

23

What does polytocous mean and give an example

-litter bearing animals
The sow:
the female produces 10 to 25 ova in each cycle and gives birth to several young each gestation period

24

What tissue produces the ovum and where is it located

-The functional layer is the parenchyma
-it contains the ovarian follicles and the cells that produce the ovarian hormones
-near the surface of the ovary

25

What happens to the follicle following different stages of puberty

-the follicle becomes the mature ovum (Graafian follicle)
Follicle has fluid and contains ova: looks like blister
-produces estrogen which must be elevated to show heat

26

What is the Graafian Follicle

-looks like a blister on the ovary
-is caused by follicle stimulating hormone (FHS) from the anterior pituitary gland
-FHS causes follicle to enlarge

27

What hormone does the pituitary produce and what is it's function

It produces LH which causes a rupture (ovulation) of this follicle and a release of an ovum (egg)

28

What happens immediately after ovulation

The cavity left by the vacated ovum now becomes the corpus luteum (CL)

29

What hormone does the corpus luteum produce and what is it's function

It produces progesterone
-suppresses further heats(estruses)
-important for maintaining a pregnancy