Chapter 5-The Dairy Industry Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 5-The Dairy Industry Deck (50)
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What are the benefits of milk and milk products

-easily digestible, high quality protein


What is the Luis pasture

Pasteurizing and kills bacteria


What is condensed milk

Takes water out of milk, keeps important nutrients


What is a cream separator

Pulls fat to make butter


What is the Babcock cream test

Test amount of fat, used to price


What is homogenization.

Force milk through screen to separate milk globules


What are some major developments in the dairy industry

-milking machine
-improved method of processing milk
-mechanical refrigeration


What are the leading states

-New York


What is the percent of milk used and what is the percent of milk by- products

44% for milk and 56% milk by-products


What was the total milk production in 2005

601 lbs dairy products per person
- more low fat or non fat and less whole milk


What has happened milk production since 1959

Number how cows have decreased,however, we have more milk production than ever before. We have become more efficient


How many milk cows in 2010

9.12 million


What do newborn dairy cows need and how much of it

Colostrum and 4 lbs


When the calf is born, what happens to it

-separated from dam and dam is milked and managed with producing herd.
-fed colostrum for 2 to 3 days


What happens to the extra colostrum

-cannot be sold as milk to consumer
-frozen or diluted-2 parts colostrum: 1 part milk and fed to calves


Explain how a calf's environment should be

-keep calf in clean, dry, draft-free housing
-change to whole milk or milk replacement and change is over time


What are some calf feeding procedures

-do not overfeed
-feed regularly
-keep feeding equipment and pens clean
-feed at same temperature


What are some more calf feeding procedures

-must receive milk or milk replacer until they are 6 to 8 weeks old
-weaning depends on on functional rumen
-feed calf starter(concentrate mix) and high quality hay beginning at seven days of age
-fresh clean water always available


What is a nurse cow

A nurse cow used to nurse calves, two or more calves on one cow because she produces too much for one calf


What is the whole milk system and what is the problem with it

You hand feed while milk to calves, it costs too much


What is the milk replacer system

Feed calves milk replacer and it is 1/3 the cost of whole milk


When is a heifer able to begin lactation

24 months of age and is pregnant by 14 or 15 months of age


What are heifers fed for growth

-feed concentrates: 3 to 4 lbs per day
-high quality pasture or freed choice hay up to one year of age


In what condition should replacement heifers be in

Should be in good condition, however, should never be too fat. Fat accumulates in the udder.


Describe the care of a cow during gestation

-enter milking string( when the heifer joins milking heard at 2 years)at 2 years of age
-bred heifers should be kept in good condition on pasture or hay with concentrates is necessary


What is a springer

Heifers within 1 to 3 months of calving


What is a dry cow

Cow not being milked 50 to 69 days before calving
-allows mammary system and cow to recover from previous lactation


What is the heifer and dry cow care 2 months before calving

-heifers are kept with dry cow prior to calving
-heifers and dry cows put on good pasture or fed good quality hay(alfalfa for example)
-give concentrates only if necessary
-important for high producing cows to gain weight prior to calving and lactation
-must feed extra during late lactation
-good pasture or high quality hay is given free choice


How long is normal lactation and how much is produced at peak lactation

305 days, 35 kg or 2.2 lbs, 10-12 gallons a day


When is the greatest lactation achieved

-after calving
-four to six weeks after calving maximum production is reached