Chapter 3 Vocab Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 3 Vocab Deck (27):
1

Article VI

A provision of the Constitution that makes the laws and treaties of the federal government the “supreme law of the land.”

2

block grants

Grants given by the federal government to state and local governments for general purposes.

3

categorical grants

Grants given by the federal government to state and local governments for a specific purpose defined in a federal law.

4

charter

Charters specify what a city can and cannot do.

A special act charter applies to a specific city.

A general act charter applies to all cities within a certain classification.

A home rule charter allows the city to do anything not prohibited by the charter or state law.

5

city (municipal corporation or municipality)

An entity chartered by the state to exercise certain defined powers and provide certain specific services.

6

confederation (confederal system)

A form of government in which sovereignty is wholly in the hands of the state and local governments.

7

conditions of aid

A condition which a state government must fulfill in return for taking federal funds.

8

devolution

The return of programmatic management to the states, but with some federal guidelines in place.

9

Dillon's rule

The requirement that the terms of all municipal charters be narrowly interpreted.

10

dual federalism

An interpretation of the Constitution that states are as supreme in their sphere of power as is the federal government in its sphere of power.

11

federal system

A form of government in which sovereignty is shared between a national government and local governments.

12

federalism

The division of power between a national government and regional (state) governments, with the national government sovereign and the states retaining significant powers.

13

grants-in-aid

Federal funds provided to state and local governments.

14

initiative

A provision allowing voters to place legislative matters directly on the ballot by getting enough signatures on a petition.

15

intergovernmental lobby

Lobbying activities by state and local officials who establish offices in Washington, D.C. to compete for federal funds.

16

mandates

Requirements imposed on state and local governments to perform.

17

McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)

A Supreme Court decision which established the authority of Congress to exercise powers implied by the Constitution, granted by the "necessary and proper" clause. Also decided the federal government was immune to state taxation.

18

necessary and proper clause

The final paragraph of Article I, section 8 of the Constitution, which authorizes Congress to pass all laws “necessary and proper” to carry out the enumerated powers.

19

nullification

The concept that a state may void federal laws considered in violation of the Constitution.

20

ordinances

City laws.

21

police power

The power of a government to enact laws and regulations that promote citizens’ health, safety, and morals.

22

recall

A provision that allows voters to remove an elected official from office.

23

referendum

A provision that allows voters to reject a measure voted by the legislature in the election ballot.

24

revenue sharing

A grant-in-aid program that allowed states maximum discretion in the spending of federal funds.

25

sovereignty

The supreme or ultimate political authority.

26

Tenth Amendment

An amendment to the Constitution which defines the powers of the states: all powers not granted to the national government.

27

unitary system

A system in which sovereignty is wholly in the hands of the national government.