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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Deck (27)
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1
Q

consciousness

A

one’s subjective experience of the world, resulting from brain activity
to be conscious of something, we have to pay attention to it (multitasking)

2
Q

cocktail party effect

A

shadowing - different messages in 2 ears of the headphones

3
Q

selective attention

A

some stimuli demand our attention (threat, socially relevant)
many things go without out attention

4
Q

sleep

A

considered an altered state of consciousness
you remain somewhat aware and can still process info

5
Q

circadian rhythms

A

influenced by light and dark
melatonin - suppressed by bright light and released

6
Q

REM: rapid eye movement

A

brain is active, muscles are paralyzed
usually accompanied by sexual arousal
80% awakened report dreams
more sleep cycles, more time in REM

7
Q

dreams

A

everyone dreams
unsure if they serve a biological function
REM dreams are bizarre, emotional, etc
non-REM dreams are boring

8
Q

activation synthesis theory

A

random neural firing activates sensory input
brain uses stored memories to try and make sense of it

9
Q

Insomnia

A

inability to sleep
12-20% of adults
anxiety can have a cause
more common in women and older adults

10
Q

obstructive sleep apnea

A

stop breathing (during sleep) due to throat closing
people don’t realize it’s happening
main symptom is loud snoring

11
Q

REM behavior disorder

A

act out dreams
sometimes can harm others

12
Q

somnambulism

A

sleep walking, common in younger children

13
Q

narcolepsy

A

excessive sleepiness in normal (daytime) hours
may go limp or collapse
cause is unknown

14
Q

what are the 4 main symptoms of narcolepsy?

A
  1. attacks of sleepiness during the day
  2. cataplexy - muscle weakness, paralysis
  3. sleep
  4. hallucinations
15
Q

hypnosis

A

social interaction during which a person responds to suggestions
works for some but not others
have to “believe” for it to work
is it an altered state of consciousness?

16
Q

meditiation

A

focus attention on external object or sense of awareness
can help reduce stress and help with greater attention

17
Q

what are some types of mediation?

A

concentrative - focus on one thing, such as breathing, mental image, or phrase
mindfulness - lets thoughts flow freely, paying attention to them without reacting

18
Q

lose yourself

A

“flow” - so engrossed in an activity, rewarding for its own sake – lose track of time and external world
(example) exercise - runner’s high

19
Q

drugs

A

blessing and curse
“recreational use” - alter sensations, consciousness, thoughts, mood, and behaviors in desirable ways
addiction - drug use that remains compulsive despite negative consequences

20
Q

what do stimulants do?

A

increase behavior and mental activity
affect dopamine, norepinephrine, and ACh

21
Q

amphetamines and methamphetamine are examples of stimulants and they are…

A

used for weight loss and staying awake
damages brain structure with long-term use

22
Q

what are other examples are stimulants?

A

cocaine
caffeine
nicotine

23
Q

depressants

A

decrease behavioral and mental activity
affect GABA
example - anti anxiety drugs, alcohol

24
Q

opiates and narcotics

A

reduce the experience of pain
mimic effects or endorphins
examples - heroin, morphine, codeine

25
Q

hallucinogen and psychedelics

A

alter thoughts and/or perceptions
affect serotonin and glucose
examples - LSD, PCP, peyote, mushrooms

26
Q

combination drugs

A

marijuana
can have effects of stimulant, depressant, and hallucinogen
activate cannabinoid receptors
first time users may not get high
can have long-term effects on brain structure
medicinal properties

27
Q

MDMA

A

stimulant and hallucinogenic effects
affects dopamine and serotonin
examples - ecstasy, molly