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Flashcards in Chapter 5 Deck (28)
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1
Q

sensation

A

detection of external stimulus

2
Q

perception

A

processing, organizing, and interpreting sensory information

3
Q

selective attention

A

we can’t attend to everything in our environment

4
Q

sensory threshold

A

what determines what we notice

5
Q

absolute threshold

A

the smallest amount of a stimulus that can be detected

6
Q

sensory adaption

A

if something is presented continuously, we decrease in sensitivity to it until it stops

7
Q

bottom-up processing

A

based on simple input building into complex perceptions
NOT influenced by expectations

8
Q

top-down processing

A

memory and other cognitive processes interpret and shape out perception of sensory input
influenced by expectations
example - figure ground
“mental shortcut”

9
Q

vision

A

our eyes focus light from an image

10
Q

what’s the difference between rods and cones?

A

rods - black and white, night vision, not much detail
cones - color, lots a detail, bright light

11
Q

how does an image go from our eyes to our brain?

A

rods and cones – ganglion cells – optic nerve – thalamus – visual cortex

12
Q

why is there a blind spot and where is it located?

A

where the optic nerve is, no rods or cones

13
Q

color perception

A

wavelengths of light cause us to perceive colors in a certain way
trichromatic theory - there are 3 different types of cones that are sensitive to different wavelengths

14
Q

what are two different types of color blindness and what causes it?

A

red and green
yellow and blue
the wavelengths for those colors are very close together so it’s difficult to tell them apart from each other

15
Q

audition

A

the sense of sound perception

16
Q

sound wave

A

pattern of changes in air pressure produces “sound”
frequency = pitch
amplitude = loudness

17
Q

how does sound get to the brain

A

soundwaves – outer ear – middle ear – inner ear – auditory nerve – thalamus – auditory cortex

18
Q

what is the vestibular system?

A

perception of balance
semicircular canals

19
Q

how do cochlear implants work?

A

the implants stimulate the auditory nerves directly
(for those with hearing loss due to loss of hair cells)

20
Q

taste

A

“gustation” is the sense of taste
(sweet, sour, salty, bitter, umami)

21
Q

taste buds

A

mostly on our tongue, but some on throat and mouth
8,000-10,000
change over time
receptors send messages straight to the thalamus, then frontal lobe

22
Q

what are two things that can determine taste preferences?

A

culture and mother’s diet (while in womb and breastfeeding)

23
Q

smell

A

“olfaction” is sense of smell
odorants picked up by the smell receptors in the “olfactory epithelium”
information goes to the “olfactory bulb”, located under the frontal lobe

24
Q

pheromones

A

processed like odorants
released by animals and humans that trigger psychological and behavioral reactions in others
other species rely on their sense of smell more than humans
often related to sexual signaling (smell good vs bad)

25
Q

touch

A

“haptic” is sense of touch
sensory info from the skin - temperature, pressure, pain, kinesthetic sense (where is my body in space)

touch – sensory receptors – thalamus – somatosensory cortex

26
Q

what is pain?

A

an experience created by the brain in response to a stimulus

27
Q

what are two types of nerve fibers for pain?

A

fast fibers - sharp immediate pain, myelinated
slow fibers - chronic, dull, steady ache/pain, nonmyelinated

28
Q

what are two types of pain

A

fast acting - recoil from harmful objects
slow acting - keep us from using the affected body part