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Flashcards in Chapter 6 Deck (38)
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1
Q

what is learning?

A

a relatively enduring change in behavior, resulting from experience

2
Q

what is non associative learning?

A

responding after repeated exposure to a single stimulus or event
John Watson, behaviorism

3
Q

what is associative learning?

A

linking two stimuli, or events that occur together
classical and operant conditioning

4
Q

what is observational learning?

A

acquiring or changing a behavior after exposure to another individual performing that behavior

5
Q

what are two examples of non associative learning?

A

habituation & dishabituation

6
Q

what is habituation?

A

a decrease in behavioral response after repeated exposure to a stimulus

7
Q

what is dishabituation?

A

an increase in a response due to a change in something familiar

8
Q

what are two examples of associative learning?

A

classical conditioning & operant conditioning

9
Q

what is classical conditioning?

A

when we learn that a stimulus predicts another stimulus (Ivan Pavlov)

10
Q

what is operant conditioning?

A

when we learn that a behavior leads to a certain outcome

11
Q

conditioning trials

A

neutral stimulus and an unconditioned response are paired to produce a reflex

12
Q

neutral stimulus

A

does not produce response

13
Q

unconditioned response

A

produces response with no prior learning

14
Q

unconditioned stimulus

A

response that is not learned

15
Q

conditioned stimulus

A

a stimulus that causes a learned response

16
Q

acquisition

A

the NS is being paired with the US

17
Q

extinction

A

the US is no longer being presented

18
Q

spontaneous recovery

A

when US returns, behavior returns

19
Q

stimulus generalization

A

learning that occurs when stimuli that are similar to the CS produce the CR

20
Q

stimulus discrimination

A

a differentiation between 2 similar stimuli when only 1 of them is consistently associated with the US

21
Q

who are two people who used operant conditioning?

A

Edward Thorndike and B.F. Skinner

22
Q

reinforcer

A

stimulus increases likelihood the behavior will continue

23
Q

punisher

A

stimulus decreases likelihood the behavior will continue

24
Q

positive

A

adding stimulus to environment

25
Q

negative

A

removing stimulus from environment

26
Q

what is continuous reinforcement?

A

type of learning in which behavior is reinforced each time it occurs

27
Q

what is partial reinforcement?

A

type of learning in which behavior is reinforced intermittently

28
Q

ratio schedule

A

reinforcement is based on the number of times the behavior occurs

29
Q

interval schedule

A

reinforcement is provided after a specific unit of time

30
Q

fixed schedules

A

reinforcement is provided after a certain amount of time or responses has passed

31
Q

fixed ratio

A

reinforcement is given after X number of responses

32
Q

fixed interval

A

reinforcement is given after Y time

33
Q

variable schedule

A

occurs when reinforcement is provided after varying and irregular amounts of time or responses

34
Q

variable ratio

A

reinforcement is given after random number of responses

35
Q

variable interval

A

reinforcement is given after a random amount of time

36
Q

observational learning

A

the acquisition or modification of a behavior after exposure to another individual performing that behavior (aka social learning)

37
Q

who is Albert Bandura?

A

his studies suggest that exposing children to violence may encourage them to act aggressively

38
Q

what is modeling?

A

the imitation of an observed behavior
only effective is observer is physically capable of doing said behavior
more common in humans than in animals