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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Deck (23):
1

Behavior Modification

Use of operant conditioning techniques to bring about desired changes in behavior

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Classical Conditioning

Learning to make an involuntary response to a stimulus other than the original, natural stimulus that normally produces the reflex

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Cognitive Perspective

Modern theory in which classical conditioning is seen to occur because the conditioned stimulus provides information or an expectancy about the coming of the unconditioned stimulus

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Conditioned Response (CR)

Learned reflex response to a conditioned stimulus

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Conditioned Stimulus (CS)

Stimulus that becomes able to produce a learned reflex response by being paired with the original unconditioned stimulus

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Conditioned Taste Aversion

Development of a nausea or aversion response to a particular taste because that taste was followed by a nausea reaction, occurring after only one association

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Extinction

Disappearance or weakening of a learned response following the removal or absence of the unconditioned stimulus or the removal of a reinforcer

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Fixed Schedule of Reinforcement

Schedule of reinforcement in which the interval of time that must pass before reinforcement becomes possible is always the same

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Insight

Sudden perception or relationships among various parts

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Latent Learning

Learning that remains hidden until its application becomes useful

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Law of Effect

Law stating that if an action is followed by a pleasurable consequence, it will tend to be repeated, and if followed by an unpleasant consequence, it will tend to not be repeated

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Learning/Performance Distinction

Referring to the observation that learning can take place without actual performance of the learned behavior

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Negative Reinforcement

Reinforcement of a response by the removal, escape from, or avoidance of an unpleasant stimulus

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Neutral Stimulus (NS)

Stimulus that has no effect on the desired response

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Operant Conditioning

Learning of voluntary behavior through the effects of pleasant and unpleasant consequences and responses

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Punishment

Any event or object, that when following a response, makes that response less likely to happen again

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Reinforcement

Any event or stimulus, that when following a response, increases the probability that the response will occur again

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Shaping

Reinforcement of simple steps in behavior that leas to a desired, more complex behavior

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Spontaneous Recovery

Reappearance of a learned response after extinction has occurred

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Unconditioned Response (UCR)

Involuntary response to a naturally occurring or unconditioned stimulus

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Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)

Naturally occurring stimulus that leads to an involuntary response

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Variable Interval Schedule of Reinforcement

Schedule of reinforcement in which the interval of time that must pass before reinforcement becomes possible is different for each trial and event

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Variable Ration Schedule of Reinforcement

Schedule of reinforcement in which the number of responses required for reinforcement is different for each trial