Chapter 4,5,6 Vocab Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4,5,6 Vocab Deck (294)
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2

Alpha Waves

Regular, 8 to 12 second, high amplitude waves that are associated with relaxed wakefulness.

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Event Related Potentials

Waves that accompany certain psychological events.

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Sensory Evoked Potential

A type of the event related potentials, the change in the cortical EEG signal that is elicited by the momentary presentation of a sensory stimulation.

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Signal Averaging

A method used to reduce the noise of the background EEG

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Threshold of Excitation

The level of depolarization necessary to generate an action potential, usually about -65 mV

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Average Evoked Potentials

Focuses on the various waves in the averaged signal. When presented a stimulus, the average response time. Plotted then the background EEG is canceled.

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Action Potential

A massive momentary reversal of a neurons membrane potential from about -70 mV to about +50 mV

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P300 Wave

This wave occurs only if the stimulus has meaning for the subject. Ex: gets a reward

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All-or-None Responses

Responses that are not graded, that either occur in their full extent or not at all

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Far-Field Potentials

The portion of the evoked potential when the stimulus is not influenced by the meaning of the stimulus for the subject.

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Integration

Adding or combing a number of individual signals into one overall signal

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Electromyography

Usual procedure for the measuring muscle tension.

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Spatial Summation

The integration of signals that occur at different sites on the neurons membrane

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Electrooculography

Electrophysiological technique for recording eye movement

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Temporal Summation

The integration of neural signals that occur at different times at the same synapse

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Skin Conductance Level

One of the most common to assess the above. Measure of the background level of skin conductance that is associated with a particular situation

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Voltage-Activated Ion Channels

Ion channels that open and close in response to changes in the level of the membrane potential

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Skin Conductance Response

One of the electrodermal activity tests, is a measure of the transient changes in the skin conductance that are associated with discrete experiences.

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Rising Phase

During the rising phase of an action potential, the membrane potential changes from negative to positive, a depolarization

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Electrocardiogram

Recording of the heart beat by placing electrodes on the chest. Average is 70/min

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Re-polarization

Re-polarization refers to the change in membrane potential that returns the membrane potential to a negative value after the depolarization phase of an action potential has just previously changed the membrane potential to a positive value

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Hypertension

A chronic blood pressure of more than 140/90 mmHg.

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Absolute Refractory Period

A brief period after the initiation of an action potential during which it is impossible to elicit another action potential in the same neuron

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Sphygmamanometer

Device composed of a hollow cuff, a rubber bulb for inflating, and a pressure gauge. Measures blood pressure.

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Relative Refractory Period

A period after the absolute refractory period during which a higher-than-normal amount of stimulation is necessary to make a neuron f ire

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Stereotaxic surgery

Brain surgery using a stereotaxic apparatus to position an electrode or cannula in a specified position of the brain

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Non-decremental

The conduction of action potentials along an axon

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Plethysmography

The various techniques for measuring changes in the volume of blood in a particular part of the body

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Antidromic Conduction

Axonal conduction opposite to the normal direction; conduction from axon terminals back toward the cell body

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Stereotaxic Atlas

Used to locate brain structure in much the same way a geo atlas. The brain has three dimensions. All distances are measured in millimeters from a designated reference point