Chapter 4,5,6 Vocab Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4,5,6 Vocab Deck (294)
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31

String-of-Beads Synapses

String like shaped synapses

31

Intramuscularly

When drugs are injected into a large muscle

32

Neuropeptides

Short amino acid chains comprising between 3 and 36 amino acids; in effect they are short proteins

32

Subcutaneously

When drugs are injected fatty tissue beneath the skin

33

Synaptic Vesicles

Small spherical membranes that store neurotransmitter molecules and release them into the synaptic cleft

33

Intravenously

When drugs are injected into large veins

34

Golgi Complex

Structures in the air cell bodies and terminals buttons of neurons that package neurotransmitters and other molecules in vesicles

34

Cannula

A fine, hollow tube that has been stereotaxically implanted in the brain

35

Coexistence

The presence of more than one neurotransmitter in the same neuron

35

Neurotoxins

Neural poisons

36

Exocytosis

The process of releasing a neurotransmitter

36

Autoradiography

When slices of the brain are coated with a photographic emusion, stored in the dark for a few days and then developed much like film. High levels of 2-DG are black spots.

37

Voltage-Activated Calcium Channels

When stimulated by action potentials, these channels open, and Ca2+ ions enter the button

37

Cerebral Dialysis

Method of measuring the extracellular concentration of specific neurochemicals in behaving animals. Animal doesn?t need to be killed in this technique.

38

Receptors

Cells that are specialized to receive chemical, mechanical or radiant signals from the environment; also proteins that contain binding sites for particular neurotransmitters

38

Chromatograph

A device for measuring the chemical constituents of liquids or gases

39

Ligand

A molecule that binds to another molecule; neurotransmitters are ligands of their receptors

39

Antigens

Proteins on the surface cells that identify them as native or foreign

40

Receptor Subtypes

The different types of receptors to which a particular neurotransmitter can bind

40

Immunocytochemistry

Procedure for locating particular neuroproteins in the brain by labeling their antibodies with a dye or radioactive element then exposing the slices to the labeled antibodies.

41

Iontropic Receptors

Receptors that are associated with ligand activated ion channels

41

In Situ Hybridization

Another technique for locating peptides and other proteins in the brain; molecules that bind to the mRNA that directs synthesis of the target protein are synthesized and labeled, and the brain slices are exposed to them.

42

Metabotropic Receptors

Receptors that are associated with signal proteins and G protein

42

Gene Knockout Techniques

Procedures for creating organism that lack a particular gene under investigation

43

G Proteins

Protein that is attached to a protein of signal protein. Once neurotransmitters binds to meta receptors, sub unit of G protein breaks off or trigger synthesis of 2nd messenger

43

Antisense Drugs

Helps to circumvent the problems with gene knockout technique, allows for an organism to develop normally but then reaches into their brain and blocks expression of a particular gene.

44

Second Messenger

A chemical synthesized in a neuron in response to the binding of a neurotransmitter to a metabotropic receptor in its cell membrane

44

Gene Replacement Techniques

Procedures for creating organisms in which a particular gene has been replaced with another

45

Autoreceptors

A type of metabotropic receptor located on the presynaptic membrane and sensitive to a neuron’s own neurotransmitter

45

Green Florescent Protein

A protein composed of 238 amino acid residues that exhibit bright green fluorescence when exposed to light in the blue to ultraviolet range.