Flashcards in Chapter 4,5,6 Vocab Deck (294)
String like shaped synapses
When drugs are injected into a large muscle
Short amino acid chains comprising between 3 and 36 amino acids; in effect they are short proteins
When drugs are injected fatty tissue beneath the skin
Small spherical membranes that store neurotransmitter molecules and release them into the synaptic cleft
When drugs are injected into large veins
Structures in the air cell bodies and terminals buttons of neurons that package neurotransmitters and other molecules in vesicles
A fine, hollow tube that has been stereotaxically implanted in the brain
The presence of more than one neurotransmitter in the same neuron
The process of releasing a neurotransmitter
When slices of the brain are coated with a photographic emusion, stored in the dark for a few days and then developed much like film. High levels of 2-DG are black spots.
Voltage-Activated Calcium Channels
When stimulated by action potentials, these channels open, and Ca2+ ions enter the button
Method of measuring the extracellular concentration of specific neurochemicals in behaving animals. Animal doesn?t need to be killed in this technique.
Cells that are specialized to receive chemical, mechanical or radiant signals from the environment; also proteins that contain binding sites for particular neurotransmitters
A device for measuring the chemical constituents of liquids or gases
A molecule that binds to another molecule; neurotransmitters are ligands of their receptors
Proteins on the surface cells that identify them as native or foreign
The different types of receptors to which a particular neurotransmitter can bind
Procedure for locating particular neuroproteins in the brain by labeling their antibodies with a dye or radioactive element then exposing the slices to the labeled antibodies.
Receptors that are associated with ligand activated ion channels
In Situ Hybridization
Another technique for locating peptides and other proteins in the brain; molecules that bind to the mRNA that directs synthesis of the target protein are synthesized and labeled, and the brain slices are exposed to them.
Receptors that are associated with signal proteins and G protein
Gene Knockout Techniques
Procedures for creating organism that lack a particular gene under investigation
Protein that is attached to a protein of signal protein. Once neurotransmitters binds to meta receptors, sub unit of G protein breaks off or trigger synthesis of 2nd messenger
Helps to circumvent the problems with gene knockout technique, allows for an organism to develop normally but then reaches into their brain and blocks expression of a particular gene.
A chemical synthesized in a neuron in response to the binding of a neurotransmitter to a metabotropic receptor in its cell membrane
Gene Replacement Techniques
Procedures for creating organisms in which a particular gene has been replaced with another
A type of metabotropic receptor located on the presynaptic membrane and sensitive to a neuron’s own neurotransmitter