Chapter 4,5,6 Vocab Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4,5,6 Vocab Deck (294)
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61

Serotonin

An indolamine neurotransmitter; the only member of this class of monoamine neurotransmitters found in the mammalian nervous system

61

Short-Term Memory

Holds about seven items for less than 30 seconds without rehearsal; also called the working memory because it is the mental workspace for tasks being thought about at any given moment.

62

Indolamines

The class of monoamine neurotransmitters that are synthesized from tryptophan; serotonin is the only member of this class found in the mammalian nervous system

62

Long-Term Memory

Relatively permament memory system with virtually unlimited capacity.

62

Anterograde Amnesia

Loss of memories for events that occurred after the amnesia

63

Soluble-Gas Neurotransmitters

A class of unconventional neurotransmitters that include nitric oxide and carbon monoxide

63

Retrograde Amnesia

Loss of memories for events that occurred prior to the amnesia

64

Nitric Oxide

A soluble-gas neurotransmitter

64

Semantic Memory

Part of the declarative memory that holds general knowledge

65

Carbon Monoxide

A soluble-gas neurotransmitter

65

Episodic Memory

Part of the declarative memory that contains memories of personally experienced events.

66

Retrograde Transmission

At some synapses, they transmit feedback signals from postsynaptic neuron back to the presynaptic neuron

66

Implicit Memory

Memory with a lack of conscience/awareness in the act of recollection

67

Endocannabinoids

A class of unconventional neurotransmitters that are chemically similar to the active components of marijuana

67

Explicit Memory

Opposite of implicit. Conscious remembering

68

Anandamide

The first endogenous endocannabinoid to be discovered and characterized

68

Repetition Priming Tests

A test that study the pattern that amnesic patients display severe deficits in explicit memory with no deficits at all in implicit memory.

69

Pituitary Peptides

One of the five classes of neuropeptide transmitters; it consists of those first identified as hormones released by the pituitary

69

Wisconsin Card Sorting Test

It is a customized test for people with an injury to the frontal lobe. Sorting cards either by color, number or symbol and the patients with frontal lobe damage sort by the way asked before.

70

Hypothalamic Peptides

One of the five classes of neuropeptide transmitters; it consists of those first identified as hormones released by the hypothalamus

70

Cognitive Neuroscience

Division of biopsychology that focuses on the use of functional brain imaging to study the neural bases of human cognition.

71

Brain-Gut Peptides

One of the five classes of neuropeptide transmitters; consists of those first discovered in the gut

71

Constituent Cognitive Processes

Each complex cognitive process results from the combined activity of simple cognitive processes.

72

Opioid Peptides

One of the five classes of neuropeptide transmitters; it consists of those with a structure similar to the active ingredients of opium

72

Paired-Image Subtraction Technique

The use of PET or fMRI to locate constituent processes in the brain by producing an image of the diff in the brain activity associated with two cognitive tasks that differ in terms of a single constituent process.

73

Miscellaneous Peptides

One of the five classes of neuropeptide transmitters; it consists of those that don’t fit into the other four classes

73

Species-Common Behaviors

Those that are displayed by virtually all members of a species

74

Agonist

Drugs that facilitate the effects of a particular neurotransmitter

74

Open-Field Test

Subject is placed in a large, barren chamber, and its activity is recorded.

75

Receptor Blockers

Antagonistic drugs that bind to postsynaptic receptors without activating them and block the access of the usual neurotransmitter