Chapter 4,5,6 Vocab Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4,5,6 Vocab Deck (294)
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75

Thigmotaxic

The fact that rats rarely venture away from the walls of the test chamber and rarely engage in such activities as rearing or grooming. (fearful rats become this)

76

Nicotine

The major psychoactive ingredient of tobacco

76

Colony-Intruder Paradigm

Typical patterns of aggression and defensive behavior can be observed and measured during combative encounters between the dominant rat of an established colony and a smaller male intruder.

77

Muscarine

A poisonous substance found in some mushrooms

77

Elevated Plus Maze

Four armed, plus-sign shaped maze that is a test of defensiveness that is commonly used to study in rats anxiolytic (anxiety-reducing) effects of drugs. Two arms have sides and two do not.

78

Atropine

A receptor blocker that exerts an antagonistic effect at muscarinic receptors

78

Lordosis

Posture when a female is sexually receptive

79

Curare

An extract of a certain class of woody vines

79

Intromission

When a male rat inserts his penis

80

Botox

Blocks the release of acetylcholine at neuromuscular junctions and is used cosmetically to treat wrinkles

80

Ejaculates

Ejects his sperm

81

Periaqueductal Gray

The gray matter around the cerebral aqueduct, which contains opiate receptors and activates a descending analgesia circuit

81

Lordosis Quotient

Proportion of mounts that elicit lordosis

82

Endogenous

Naturally occurring in the body

82

Pavlovian Conditioning Paradigm

Experimenter pairs an initially neutral stimulus, conditional stimulus, with an unconditioned stimulus?a stimulus that elicits an unconditional response. As a result of these pairings, the conditioned stimulus can elicit a conditional response

83

Enkephalins

The first class of endogenous opiods to be discovered

83

Operant Conditioning Paradigm

The rate at which a particular voluntary response is emitted is increased by reinforcement or decreased by punishment.

84

Endorphins

A class of endogenous opiods

84

Self-Stimulation Paradigm

Animals press a lever to deliver electrical stimulation to particular sites in their own brains

85

Pleasure Centers

Parts of the brain that support self-stimulation

86

Conditioned Taste Aversion

Avoidance response that develops to tastes of food whose consumption has been followed by illness

87

Neophobia

Afraid of new things

88

Temporal Contiguity

A term that indicates the closeness in time of two or more events. The temporal contiguity of events is important in learning.

89

Principle of Equipotentiality

The view that conditioning proceeds in basically the same manner regardless of the particular stimuli and responses under investigation.

90

Radial Arm Maze

An array of arms, usually eight arms, radiating from a central starting area. At the end of each arm is a food cup, which may or may not be baited(have food), depending on the purpose of the study.

91

Morris Water Maze

Rats are placed in a circular, featureless pool of cool, milky water, in which they must swim until they discover the escape platform. The rats learn to swim directly to the platform by using spatial cues.

92

Conditioned Defensive Burying

When rats receive a single aversive object mounted on the wall and the rats respond by flinging bedding material at it.

93

Nanometers

Billionths of a meter

94

Infrared Waves

Too long for humans to see

95

Wavelength

Plays an important role in the perception of color