Chapter 4: Nature vs. Nurture Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4: Nature vs. Nurture Deck (48):
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Environment

Every non genetic influence from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us

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Chromosomes

Threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes

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DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid- a complex molecule containing the genetic info that makes up the chromosomes

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Genes

Biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes: a segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein

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Human Genome

Complete instructions for making an organism consisting of all the genetic material in that organisms chromosomes

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Identical Twins

Twins who develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two creating 2 genetically identical organisms

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Fraternal Twins

Twins who develop from separate fertilized eggs. They are genetically no closer than brothers and sisters, but they share a fetal environment

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Temperment

A person''s characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity

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Molecular Genetics

The sub field of biology that studies the molecular structure and function of genes

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Heritability

Proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes. The heritability of a trait may vary depending on the range of population and environments studied

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Epigenetics

Study of influences on gene expression that occur with out a DNA change

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Evolutionary Psychology

Study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection

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Natural Selection

Principle that among a range of inherited trait variations, those that lead to increased survival and reproduction will most likely be passed on the succeeding generations

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Mutations

A random error in gene replication that leads to a change

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Gender

Biologically and socially influenced characteristics by which people define male and female

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Culture

Enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, traditions, shared by a group... transmitted from one generation to the next

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Norms

An understood rule for accepted and expected behavior. Norms prescribe 'proper' behavior

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Individualism

Giving priority to one's own goals over group goals and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications

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Collectivism

Giving priority to the goals of on'es group (often one's extended family or work group) and defining one's identity according

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Aggression

Physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone

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X Chromosome

Sex chromosome found in both men and women

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Y Chromosome

Sex chromosome found only in males

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Testosterone

Most important of the male sex hormones. Both males and females have it but the additional testosterone in males stimulates growth

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Role

Expectations about a social position

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Gender Role

A set of expected behaviors for males or females

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Social Learning Theory

The theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished

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Gender Identity

Our sense of being male or female

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Gender Typing

Acquisition of a traditionally masculine or feminine role

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Transgender

Umbrella term describing people whose gender identity differs from their birth sex

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Behavior Geneticists

Study of relative power/limits of genetic and environment influences on behavior

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Heredity

Genes passed down through generations

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Nucleus

Where DNA is stored: The powerhouse of the cell

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Gene Sequence

DNA sequence/determines the order of DNA to create proteins and thus traits

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Jim Twins

Identical twins who, while raised separately, were extremely similar- same names and personality

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Dizygotic

Two separate eggs get fertilized

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Monozygotic

One egg that splits in two- genetic copy

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Adoption

Process of a child being raised by non-biological partents

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Genetic Relatives

People whom one is biologically related to (parents and siblings)

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Environmental Relatives

People whom one is raised by but not biologically related to

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Birth ORder

How one's order in birth influences their personality and behaviors/treatment

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Mark Twain's Barrel Study

2 kids kept in a barrel and fed through a hole for 18 years- taken out and given an IQ test- if one is super smart then it proves that genes=intelligence (Shows heritability)

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Sex

Gender determined by genetalia

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Mating preferences

Traits different genders prefer in a mate (Men= young, fertile/ women= supportive, successful, good genes)

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Male Answer Syndrome

Male tendency to answer wrongly/make something up rather than say they don't know

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Nature via Nurture

How our experiences add onto our genes in order to form us as people

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Sex Hormones

Hormones that stimulate growth of reproductive system, and are released during sex

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Estrogen

Main female sex hormone

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Gender Identity Disorder

When a person does not associate themselves as the gender they were assigned at birth