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Flashcards in Prologue: Basics of Psychology Deck (64):
1

Psychology

Science of behavior and mental processes

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Cognitive neuroscience

Inter-disciplinary study of brain activity linked with cognition(including perception, thinking, memory, and language)

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Nature vs. Nurture

Controversy over the contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors. Modern science sees traits and behaviors arising from the interaction of both nature and nurture

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Natural Selection

The principle that among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction/survival will most likely be passed on

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Levels of Analysis

Differing complementary views, from biological, psychological, and social-cultural used for analyzing any phenomenon

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Bio-psycho-social Approach

An integrated approach that incorporates bio, psycho, and social-cultural levels of analysis

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Basic Research

Pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base

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Applied Research

Scientific study that aims to solve practical problems

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Counseling Psychology

A branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often relating to school, work, or marriage) and in achieving greater well-being

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Clinical PSychology

A branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders

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Psychiatry

A branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who some times provide medical treatments as well as psychological therapy

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Positive Psychology

Scientific study of human functioning, with the goals of discovering and promoting strengths/virtues that help people and communities to thrive

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Behaviorism

Idea that psychology should be an objective science that studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists agree with the first part by not the second part

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Community Pscyhology

A branch of psychology that studies how people interact with their social environments and how social institutions affect individuals and groups

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Humanistic Psychology

Historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth of potentially healthy people and the individual's potential for personal growth

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Psychology's Roots

The beginning of psychology, starting with philosophy, biology, and religion.

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Atoms of the Mind

The original experiment Wilhelm Wundt performed in 1879 in the first psychology lab, in order to find study mental functions/processes and their efficiency

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Introspection

The psychological practice of patients thinking about their mental processes and emotions in order to gain a deeper understanding of themselves and for psychologist to learn. Proved incredibly unreliable due to the variety of backgrounds people have that influence their answers

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Structuralism

The belief that psychology should be processed/learned about through introspection (known as a school)

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Functionalism

The school of thought which believes in psychology through an evolutionary, biological, and behavioral lens in order to study people and try to provide answers to questions. Much more reliable and popular than structuralism/introspection

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APA

American Psychological Association, Mary Whiton Calkin was President of it in 1905

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The Animal Mind

Margaret Floy Washburn's psychology book which had great impact on psychology of the day- closer gender equality

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Principles of Psychology

The 12 years in the making book (published in 1890) by William James that was one of the greatest and most helpful resources to teach the public psychology (first psych textbook)

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Cognitive Psychology

The study of mental processes, especially in regards to external stimuli/information

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Cognitive Revolution

A shift in psychology to have greater focus on the brain and its functions, occurring in the 1960s and thus applying it to psychological studies/branches

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Behaviors

The actions displayed by any living thing that can be seen, heard, and documented

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Mental Processes

Internal actions (documented by behaviors) that the brain does to interpret an organism's surroundings

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Philosophy

The questioning of life in an attempt to find the way and meaning of human life/purpose

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Biology

The study of living organisms and their interactions with the environment

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Charles Darwin

A famous English Scientist who traveled to Guatemala and after this travel proposed the theory of evolution and natural selection

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The Origin of Species

The book by Charles Darwin which explains his theory of evolution and natural selection

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Psychobiology

The study of how the mind influences the body and the body's reactions to the mind

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Developmental Psychology

The study of of the mind at different points in a person's life (milestones)

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Neuropsychology

The study of the brain and how it influences the mind, specifically with chemicals and emotions

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Social Psychology

The study of how people interact in social situations in comparison to small groups/alone- also in response to authority

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Personality Psychology

The study of people's personalities, common traits in most people, and what effects people's personalities

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Cultural Psychology

How cultural values and beliefs influence behaviors and mental processes/perceptions

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Health Psychology

How one's physical health and behaviors are influenced by their minds

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Educational Psychology

The study of learning and learning behaviors (Ivan Pavlov)

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School Psychology

The combination of several types of psychology to help children succeed in school both intellectually and emotionally

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Experimental Psychology

Psychology in which experiments are performed in order to gain knowledge in all aspects of psychology

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Rehabilitation Psychology

The study of how to improve the daily lives of people with severe issues

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Sports Psychology

Study of how sports are impacted by genes/the mind and vice versa (influenced by anatomy/sports related science)

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Environmental Psychology

The study of how the environment one lives in effects their behaviors and perceptions

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Industrial/Organizational Psycology

Implementing helpful work methods for employees that encourage hard work while also aiding in increasing company production and functioning

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Ergonomist

A person who uses science to ensure all the needs of people are met and that they can use safe equipment

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Psychometrician

Someone who creates tests to measure varying aspects of psychology (IQ, etc.)

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Forensic Psychologist

Study of crime scenes and forensic evidence in order to solve crimes

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Psycholinguistics

Study of the brain and how it relates to language, especially how we form and gain the skill to listen and talk

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Dualism

Belief that your body is entirely separate from your mind (Body vs. Soul)

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Monism

Body and mind are same entity (Dying is just dying)

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Father of Psychology

Title given to Wilhelm Wundt due to his founding of the first psychology lab and experiment

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Psycholhistory

How historical events are influenced by psychology (Hitler=crazy?) [NEVER A CORRECT ANSWER, COMPLETELY FAKE]

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Psycholinguist

A psychologist who studies language and studies its crossroads with other studies

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Psychoceramics

A humorous term coined by Josiah S. Carberry in 1929 as "cracked pots" with its meaning [Just a joking term/a joke itself]

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Gestalt Psychology

Study of how we notice certain things and not others despite all the randomness

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Psychoanalytic Theory

Freud's theory of unconscious desires fueled by childhood events that drive our actions/motives

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Psychodynamic Theory

A theory which states that there are levels of consciousness which express beliefs differently

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Ethics

A philosophical belief/topic that discusses the difference between good and bad

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Allele 334

An allele which theoretically predicts the fidelity of a man who does or doesn't carry it (Will he cheat or not)

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Phenomenology

How people consciously experience things and how it affects their behaviors

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Engineering Psychologist

Similar to humanistic psychology, except it is with machines in order to make them as effective as possible

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Eclectic Approach

A way of psychological treatment that combines multiple treatments/ideas to meet an individual's needs

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Phrenology

Study of bumps/dents/shape on and of the skull and how that influences personality