Chapter 7: Learning Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 7: Learning Deck (53)
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Learning

The process of acquiring new and relatively enduring information and behaviors

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Associative LEarning

Learning that certain events occur together. The events may be a stimuli (as in CC) or a response and its consequences (as in operant conditioning)

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Stimulus

Any event or situation that evokes a response

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Classical Conditioning

A type of learning in which one learns to link 2 or more stimuli in anticipation of events

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Unconditioned Response (UR)

In CC, an unlearned, naturally occurring response, such as salivation,to an unconditioned stimulus (US) such as food in the mouth

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Unconditioned Stimulus (US)

In CC, a stimulus that unconditionally-naturally and reflexively- triggers a response (UR)

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Conditioned Response (CR)

In CC, a learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus (CS)

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Conditioned Stimulus (CS)

In CC, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus (US) comes to trigger a conditioned response (CR)

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Acquisition

In Cc, the initial stage, when one links a NS and a US so that the US begins triggering the UR. In operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response

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Extinction

Diminishing of a CR; occurs in CC when an US does not follow a CS; operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced

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Spontaneous Recovery

Reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response

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Generalization

The tendency, after a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned to stimuli to elicit a similar response

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Discrimination

In CC, the learned ability to distinguish between a CS and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned response

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Operant Conditioning

A type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcement or diminished if followed by a punisher

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Law of Effect

Thorndike's principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely and that behaviors followed by a punisher become less likely

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Operant Chamber

In OC research, a chamber...containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food/water reinforcer; attached devices record an animal;s rate of bar pressing or key pecking

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Shaping

An operant conditioning process in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior

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Primary Reinforcer

An innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need (Food, water, heat, etc.)

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Continuous Reinforcer

A stimulus that gains its power through association with a primary/secondary reinforcer

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Partial Reinforcement

Reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition, but much greater resistance to extinction

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Fixed-Ratio Schedule

In OC, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses

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Variable-Ratio Schedule

In OC, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses

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Fixed-Interval Ratio Schedule

In OC, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed

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Variable-Interval Ratio Schedule

In OC, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals

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Punishment

An event that tends to decrease the behavior that it folows

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Respondent Behavior

Behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimuli

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Operant Behavior

Behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences

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Cognitive Map

A mental representation of the lay out of one's environment. For example, after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have learned a cognitive map of it

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Latent Learning

Learning that occurs but is not apparent until until there is an incentive to demonstrate it

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Intrinsic Motivation

A desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake