Chapter 7: Learning Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 7: Learning Deck (53):
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Learning

The process of acquiring new and relatively enduring information and behaviors

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Associative LEarning

Learning that certain events occur together. The events may be a stimuli (as in CC) or a response and its consequences (as in operant conditioning)

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Stimulus

Any event or situation that evokes a response

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Classical Conditioning

A type of learning in which one learns to link 2 or more stimuli in anticipation of events

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Unconditioned Response (UR)

In CC, an unlearned, naturally occurring response, such as salivation,to an unconditioned stimulus (US) such as food in the mouth

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Unconditioned Stimulus (US)

In CC, a stimulus that unconditionally-naturally and reflexively- triggers a response (UR)

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Conditioned Response (CR)

In CC, a learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus (CS)

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Conditioned Stimulus (CS)

In CC, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus (US) comes to trigger a conditioned response (CR)

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Acquisition

In Cc, the initial stage, when one links a NS and a US so that the US begins triggering the UR. In operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response

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Extinction

Diminishing of a CR; occurs in CC when an US does not follow a CS; operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced

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Spontaneous Recovery

Reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response

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Generalization

The tendency, after a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned to stimuli to elicit a similar response

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Discrimination

In CC, the learned ability to distinguish between a CS and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned response

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Operant Conditioning

A type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcement or diminished if followed by a punisher

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Law of Effect

Thorndike's principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely and that behaviors followed by a punisher become less likely

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Operant Chamber

In OC research, a chamber...containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food/water reinforcer; attached devices record an animal;s rate of bar pressing or key pecking

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Shaping

An operant conditioning process in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior

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Primary Reinforcer

An innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need (Food, water, heat, etc.)

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Continuous Reinforcer

A stimulus that gains its power through association with a primary/secondary reinforcer

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Partial Reinforcement

Reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition, but much greater resistance to extinction

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Fixed-Ratio Schedule

In OC, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses

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Variable-Ratio Schedule

In OC, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses

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Fixed-Interval Ratio Schedule

In OC, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed

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Variable-Interval Ratio Schedule

In OC, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals

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Punishment

An event that tends to decrease the behavior that it folows

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Respondent Behavior

Behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimuli

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Operant Behavior

Behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences

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Cognitive Map

A mental representation of the lay out of one's environment. For example, after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have learned a cognitive map of it

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Latent Learning

Learning that occurs but is not apparent until until there is an incentive to demonstrate it

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Intrinsic Motivation

A desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake

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Extrinsic Motivation

A desire to perform a behavior to receive promised rewards or avoid threatened punishment

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Modeling

The process of observing and imitating a specific behavior

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Mirror Neurons

Frontal lobe neurons that some scientists believe fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so. The brain's mirroring of another's actions may enable imitation and empathy

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Observational Learning

Learning by observing others

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Rewards

Objects or actions that increase a behavior

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Conditioning

A way to alter or determine behavior

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Biological Predispositions

Constraints on abilities or behaviors due to a genetic inability to perform them

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Taste Aversion

An aversion to certain kinds of food due to associating them with a bad experience

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Reinfocers

Things that increase a behavior or 'reinforce it'

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Positive Reinforcer

A reward that increases behavior

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Negative Rinforcer

Taking something away/a negative reward to increase reward

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Secondary Reinforcer

A reinforcer one must learn to value

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Conditioned Reinforcer

Reinforcer that depends on something else

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Immediate Rinforcers

Reinforcers that reinforce a response immediately after it is done

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Delayed Reinforcers

Reinforcers that do not reward/reinforce right away, but rather later (delayed gratification)

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Overjustification Effect

Learning to do a behavior that was once intrinsically motivated but is now extrinsically motivated

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Memes

Concepts and behaviors spread by viewing and immitating

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Antisocial

Behaviors that are destructive and harmful to society

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Prosocial

Positive, helpful, constructive behaviors

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Immitation

The copying of actions or imitation of them (social situations)

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Desensitize

To not be shocked by something or experience effects intended by it

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Successive Approximation

Rewarding small achievements that will eventually lead to an end desired behavior

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Pavlovian Learning

Another name for Classical Conditioning