Chapter 8: Memory Flashcards Preview

AP Psych > Chapter 8: Memory > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 8: Memory Deck (49):
1

Memory

The persistence of learning over time through storage retrieval of information

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Recall

A measure of memory in which a person must retrieve information learned earlier as on a fill-in-the-blank test

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Recognition

A measure of memory in which a person need only identify items previously learned, such as a multiple-choice test

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Relearning

A measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material again

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Encoding

Processing of information into the memory system

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Storage

Retention of encoded information over time

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Retrieval

Process of getting information out of memory storage

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Sensory Memory

Immediate very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system

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Short-Term Memory

Activated memory that holds a few items briefly ... before the information is stored or forgotten

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Long-Term Memory

Relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences

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Working Memory

A newer understanding of short-term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory

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Explicit Memory

Encoding that requires attention and conscious thought

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Effortful Processing

Memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously now and declare (declarative memory)

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Automatic Processing

Unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, frequency, and of well-learned information

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Implicit Memory

Retention independent of conscious recollection (non-declarative memory)

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Iconic Memory

Momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli or picture-image memory lasting no longer than a few tenths of a second

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Ecohic Memory

Momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can be recalled in 3-4 seconds

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Chunking

Organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically

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Mnemonics

Memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices

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Spacing Effect

Phenomenon whereby animals more easily remembering learning when they are studied a few times spaced over a long time span

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Hippocampus

Neural center located in the limbic system; helps process explicit memories for storage

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Flashbulb Memory

Clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event

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Long-Term Potentiation

An increase in cell's potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory

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Priming

Activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory

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Proactive Interference

Disruption effect of prior learning on the recall of new information

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Retroactive Interference

Disruption effect of new learning on the recall of old information

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Repression

In psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-inducing thoughts, feelings, and memories

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Source Amnesia

Attributing the wrong source to an event we have experienced etc. Source amnesia, along with the misinformation effect, may impact false memories

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Deja Vu

Eerie sense that I've experienced this before (from current understanding, it is most likely a subconscious trigger that causes the retrieval of earlier experiences

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Mood-Congruent Memory

Tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood

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Three-Stage Memory Model

See page 301

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Parallel Processing

Ability of the brain to simultaneously process incoming stimuli of differing quality

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Rehearsal

Cognitive process in which information is repeated over and over as a possible way of learning and remembering it

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Overlearning

Theory that practicing newly acquired skills will lead to the initial mastery of the skill

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Next-in-Line Effect

People not remembering what other people said because they were too busy with rehearsing their own part

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Serial-Position Effect

Tendency of a person to recall 1st and last items in a series best, and the middle worst

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Visual Encoding

Another name for iconic memory, remembering things that you've seen

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Acoustic Encoding

Another name for ecohic memory, it is the memory of things you have heard

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Semantic Encoding

Processing and encoding of sensory input that has particular meaning or can be applied to a concept

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Self Reference Effect

A tendency for people to encode information differently depending on the level on which the self is implicated in the information

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Imagery

Pictures in the mind or a visual representation in the absence of environment input

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Hierarchies

Broad concepts divided, then subdivided, until it is down to a narrow fact/ide

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Amnesia

Loss of memory (can be parts or ability to remember itself)

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Three Sins of Forgetting

1. Absent Mindedness 2. Trans-science (use it or lose it) 3. Blocking (it was on the tip of my tongue

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Three Sins of Distortion

1. Mis-attribution 2. Suggestibility 3. Bias

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Forgetting

Losing an already encoded memory or altering it so it is not the original memory

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Storage Decay

Edward Thorndike- use it or lose it, applied to memory

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Misinformation Efect

Incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event

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Rosy Retrospection

Past events are viewed as good despite being mundane at the time