Chapter 3: Consciousness Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 3: Consciousness Deck (86):
1

consciousness

Being aware of your surroundings and yourself

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Behaviorism

Study of behavior and how it reflects psychology

3

Neuroscience

Study of the brain and how it functions biologically

4

Hypnosis

Process by which one sees suggestion to convince others that a behavior, feeling, or thought will occur

5

Cognition

Mental processes that are what makes/creates more intelligence through external senses and stimulation

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Levels of Consciousness

Similar to the iceberg model, shows how we react to stimuli or not- consciousness, preconscious, unconscious, nonconscious

7

Subconscious

Part of consciousness that processes stimuli without us knowing and also containing our internal desires and/or ideas that we don't know about

8

Altered States of Consciousness

States of being where we don't fit the definition of consciousness, such as sleep, hypnosis, and drug using

9

Biological Clock

Our internal clock that controls our internal state (energies, hormones, etc.) AKA Circadian Rythms

10

Annual Cycles

Occurrences/cycles that repeat each year

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Seasonal Effective Disorder

Depression/mood shifts in winter, mainly due to diet and lack of vitamin D

12

28 Day Cycle

A series of events that repeats after 28 days AKA the menstrual cycle

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Menstrual Cycle

28 day cycle where a woman's uterine lining and egg is released

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PMS

Hormones that are released as a result of the ovaries releasing an egg

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24 hour cycle

Circadian Rhythms, or events that repeat every 24 hours

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90 Minute Cycle

Occurs during sleep (sleep pattern), length of REM

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Stages of Sleep

NREM 1-3(4) and REM w/ different functions of each stage

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Circadian Rhythms

Our internal clock that regulates our peaks and lows over a 25 hour cycle

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Jet Lag

Sleepiness and discomfort as a result of being shifted into a different time zone while not having an adjusted circadian rhythm

20

Pineal Gland

Stimulated by suprachiasmatic nucleus to produce melatonin

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Melatonin

Hormone that is released to induce sleep

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Neurotransmitter

Chemical Messenger

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Suprachiasmatic Nucleus

Part of the hypothalamus that controls sleep/pineal gland

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Sunday Night Insomnia

When people can't go to sleep on time on Sunday due to having stayed up late nearly all weekend

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Monday Morning Blues

Feeling poor Monday Morning due to lack of proper sleep

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REM

Rapid Eye Movement, paradoxical sleep, body twitches some but mainly relaxed as the mind has dreams- once every sleep cycle, body still active

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EEG Scans

Scans of electric activity in the brain during sleep to see what and how much of the brain is active during sleep and its different parts

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Alpha Waves

Slow and relaxed brain waves while one is awake

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Sleep

Necessary process/loss of consciousness from which we can come back (Not a coma)

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PET Scan

Scan of the brain to see what parts of it are active during sleep stages

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Sleep Spindles

Short bursts of brain activity during NREM 2

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Morning Erection

When a man awakens and has an erection due to having an arousing REM dream

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Erectile Disorder

Issues with maintaining/getting an erection despite getting a "morning erection"

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Sleep Debt

Losing sleep over the course of multiple nights and having to make up for it all one night later

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Randy Gardner

Holds the world record for staying awake the longest without stimulants

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Adenosine

Drug to treat irregular heartbeat

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Pituitary Gland

Gland that controls all other glands (including the pineal gland)

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Sleep Disorders

Disorders that interfere with sleep acquired by a person

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Insomnia

Inability to fall/stay asleep

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Narcolepsy

Falling asleep suddenly (into REM) as a result of strong emotions or situations

41

Sleep Apnea

When someone stops breathing during sleep, wakes up as a result, and then falls asleep

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Hypocretin

Neurotransmitter involved in alertness

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Night Terrors

Not remembering acting terrified/aroused during NREM 3 and experiencing something similar to a nightmare (2-3 hours post sleep)

44

Dreams

Images, emotions, and thoughts that occur during sleep, causing hallucination images that are sometimes improbable and delusion in one's acceptance, and they are hard to remember- during REM

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Nightmare

A terrifying dream during REM making it differ from a night-terror

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Sigmund Freud

Believed dreams are our suppressed desires

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Manifest Content

What happens (the plot) of the dream

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Latent Conent

The drives/unfulfilled wishes present in the dream through symbolic elements

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The Interpretation of Dreams

Book by Freud stating how he believed dreams were all of our unconscious desires

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Information Processing Theory

Idea that the purpose of dreams is to help us store our memories

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Activation-Synthesis Theory

Our brain produces static, thus causing us to remember things which we make into stories to make sense of them

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REM Rebound

After sleep with drawl, we go straight into REM sleep and for a longer amount of time

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Hypnotic State

Someone in the state of being hypnotized, doing things without remembering

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Posthypnotic Amnesia

Not remembering what happened during a hypnotic session

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Anton Mesmer

One of the first to start hypnotic medicine under a different name- Animal magnetic and magnetic fluid

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Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale

Help with why hypnotism works and how susceptible a person is to it

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Hypnotic Susceptibility

How open to being hypnotized someone is, differs depending on what is being asked

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Posthypnotic Suggestion

A suggestion that is carried out when a person is out of the hypnotized state, can be used to regulate behaviors or other things

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Dissociation

How and when a person becomes detached from consciousness- physical and emotional (split in consciousness where thoughts and behaviors occur

60

Social Influence Theory

Idea that people under hypnosis are caught up in an act and are influenced by social authority

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Divided Consciousness

Idea that hypnotized people are that way due to their subconscious being the test subject and obeying the command

62

Ernest Hilgard

Stanford Psychologist who looked into hypnosis as a pain controller

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Hidden Observer

How aware a hypnotized person is of their emotions and feelings like pain

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Psychoactive Drugs

Chemicals that change the perception or feelings of the user

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Tolerance

Regular use of a drug causes less effects, more of drug need for some effects

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Neuroadaptation

Change in brain chemistry as a result of regular drug use

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Withdrawal

Stopping drug use and experiencing unlikable symptoms

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Physical Dependence

Need to take a dug due to experiencing withdrawal symptoms

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Psychological Dependence

Need to do drugs due to a need to relieve a negative psych problem

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Depressants

Drugs that slow neural activity thus reducing the functions of the body (Opiates, alcohol, barbiturates)

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Stimulants

Drugs that increase neural activity and functions of the body (make them faster)

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Hallucinogens

Drugs that cause sensational images and alter one's viewpoint

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Amphetamines

Drugs that increase neural activity and functions of the body, increased mood and energy

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Cocaine

Stimulates aggression and increases reactions

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MDMA

Another name for ecstasy

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Psychodelic Drugs

Drugs that change mind, perception, and senses- manipulates brain into sensing what's not there

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LSD

Another name for acid

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Acid Trip

When someones uses LSD, creates strong, sensory images- lots of emotions, like near death experiences

79

THC

Delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol used in marijuana for its effects

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Alcohol

Drug as a dis-inhibitor that slows body motions and the overall mental functioning

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Heroin

An opiate that slows nervous system and creates a peaceful moment

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Caffine

In coffee, speeds up brain, thus elevating one's mood and functioning

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Methamphetamine

Stimulates CNS, speeds up functioning, energy, and mood by stopping production of dopamine

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Ecstasy

Synthetic, more intimacy, long term risk= less serotonin and poor mod/intelligence, short=health

85

Marijuana

Mild hallucinogen that relaxes the body and makes it more susceptible to stimulated imagery

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Near-Death Experience

Hallucinations after being close to death, altered conscious, memories and exaggerated physical sensations