Flashcards in Chapter 4 Quarterly notes Deck (41):

1

## Heisenbergs proposal answers question of where electrons are

### Located if they are both par files and wave s

2

## (Heisenberg) electrons are detected by their

### Interaction with photons

3

## (Heisenberg) because photons have about the same energy as electrons any attempt to locate a specific electron with a

### Photon knocks the electron off its course

4

## Erwin schrodingers used the hypothesis that electrons have a dual wave particle nature and

### Developed an equation that treated electrons in atoms as waves

5

## Quantization of electron energies was a

### Natural outcome of schrodingers equation

6

## Only waves of specific energies, and thus frequencies provide

### Solutions to the equation

7

## Quantum theory describes mathematically the

### Wave properties of electrons and other very small particles

8

## Electrons do not travel around the nucleus in

### Neat orbits

9

## Electrons exist in certain regions called

### Orbitals

10

## An orbital is a three dimensional

### Region around the nucleus that indicated the probable location of an electron

11

## Electrons in atoms orbitals also have

### Quantized energies

12

## An electrons energy level is not the only characteristic of an orbital that is indicated by

### Solving the schrodinger equation.

13

## Quantum numbers specify the properties of

### Atomic orbitals and the properties of electrons in orbitals

14

## Principal quantum number symbolized by

### N

15

## Principal quantum number indicates the

### Main energy level occupied by the electron

16

## Total number of orbitals in a given shel is equal to

### n^2

17

## Angular momentum quantum number symbolized by

### L

18

## Angular momentum quantum number indicates the

### Shape of the orbital

19

## For specific main energy level number of orbital shapes possible is equal to

### N

20

## Values of n are

### Positive integers only

21

## Values of l are zero and all

### Positive integers less than or equal to n - 1

22

## When l equals 0 the shape is

### S

23

## L = 1 shape is

### P

24

## L = 2 shape is

### D

25

## L= 3 shape is

### F

26

## Magnetic quantum number symbolized by

### M

27

## Magnetic quantum number indicates the

### Orientation of an orbital around the nucleus

28

## Values of m are

### Whole numbers including zero from -L to +L

29

## Orientation of s corresponds to

### M=0

30

## 3 p orbitals relate to m values of

### -1 0 and +1

31

## D orientations correspond to m values or

### -2 -1 0 +1 +2

32

## Number of electrons per main energy level

### 2n^2

33

## Spin quantum number has only

###
Two possible values -1/2 or +1/2

Which indicate the two fundamental soon states of an electron in an orbital

34

## Electron configuration is the

### Arrangement of electrons in an atom

35

## Ground state configuration. Is the lowest

### Energy arrangement of the electrons for each element

36

## Aufbau principle l, an electron occupies

### The lowest energy orbital that can receive it

37

## Pauli exclusion principle, no two electrons in the same atom can

### Have the same set of four quantum numbers

38

## Hund's rule, orbitals of equal energy are each occupied by

### One electron before any orbital is occupied by s second electron and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals must have the same spin state

39

## Noble gases

### The group 18 elements (helium neon argon krypton xenon and radon)

40

## Noble gas notation

### To simply writing an electron configuration symbol for the previous noble gas is enclosed in square brackets is used to represent part of the configuration

41