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Flashcards in Ch 1 Deck (116):
1

Chemistry is the study of the

Composition, structure, and properties of matter, the processes that matter undergoes, and the energy changes that accompany these processes

2

Instruments are routinely used in chemistry to

Extend our ability to observe and make measurements

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Instruments make it possible to look at

Micro structures

4

Micro structures

Things too tiny to be seen with the unaided eye

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The scanning electron microscope reveals

Tiny structures by beaming electrons at them

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X rays can also be used to

Determine micro structures

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X Ray diffraction pattern can be analyzed to

Reveal the arrangement of atoms, molecules, or other particles that make up the materials

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By learning about micro structures chemists can

Explain the behavior of macrostructures

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Organic chemistry

The study of most carbon containing compounds

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Inorganic chemistry

The study of non organic substances, many of which have organic fragments bonded to metals (organometallics)

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Physical chemistry

The study of the properties and changes of matter and their relation to energy

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Analytical chemistry

The identification of the components and composition of materials

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Because we now know that both living and non living matter consists of chrmical structures

Chemistry is central to all the sciences

14

Biochemistry

The study of substances and processes occurring in living things

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Theoretical chemistry

The use of math and computers to understand the principles behind observed chemical behavior and to design and predict the properties of new compounds

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A chemical is any substance that has a

Definite composition

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Knowing the properties of chemicals allows chemists to

Find suitable uses for them

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Basic research is carried out for the sake of

Increasing knowledge, such as how and why a specific reaction occurs and what the properties of a substance are

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Basic research can result in

Chance discoveries

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Applied research is generally carried out to

Solve a problem

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In applied research researchers are driven not by curiosity or a desire to know but by a

Desire to solve a specific problem

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Technological development typically involves

The production and use of products that improve our quality of life

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Technological applications often

Lag far behind the discoveries that are eventually used in technologies

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Basic research applied research and technological development often

Overlap.

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Discoveries made in basic research may lead to

Applications that can result in new technologies

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Explaining what matter is involved

Finding properties that all matter has in common

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Volume is the amount of

Three dimensional space an object occupies. All matter has volume

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Mass is a measure of

The amount of matter. All matter has mass. Mass is the measurement you make using a balance.

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Volume and mass are the

General properties of all matter

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The fundamental building blocks of matter are

Atoms and molecules

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Atoms and molecules make up

Elements and compounds

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An atom is

The smallest unit of an element that maintains the chemical identity of that element

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An element is a

Pure substance that cannot be broken down into simpler, stable substances and is made of one type of atom

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A compound is a substance that

Can be broken down into simple stable substances

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Each compound is made from the

Atoms of two or more elements that are chemically bonded

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Molecule

The smallest unit of an elect or compound that retains all of the properties or that element or compound

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Every substance whether it is an element or a compound has

Characteristic properties

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Chemists use properties to

Distinguish between substances and to separate them

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A property may be a

Characteristic that defines an entire set of substances

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The distinguishing property of metals is that they

Conduct electricity well

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Properties can ell reveal the identity of

An unknown substance

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Properties are either

Intensive or extensive

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Extensive properties depend on

The amount of matter that is present

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Examples of extensive properties

Volume mass and amount of energy in a substance

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Intensive properties

Do not depend on the amount of matter present

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Examples of intensive properties

Melting point
Boiling point
Density
Ability to conduct electricity and to transfer energy as heat

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Intensive properties are the same for

A given substance regardless of how much of the substance is present

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A physical property is a

Characteristic that can be observed or measures without changing the identity of the substance

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Physical properties describe the

Substance itself rather than describing how it can change into other substances

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Examples of physical properties

Melting point, boiling point

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Physical change

Doesn't involve a change in the identity of a substance

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Examples of physical change

Grinding
Cutting
Melting
Boiling

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Change of state is a

Physical change of a substance from one state to another

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3 common states of matter

Solid
Liquid
Gas

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Matter in the solid state has

Definite volume and definite shape

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Solids have definite volume and shape because the particles in them

Are packed together in relatively fixed positions

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The particles in solids are held

Close together by the strong attractive forces between them and only vibrate about fixed pts

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Matter in the liquid state has a

Definite volume but not a definite shape. A liquid assumes the shape of its container

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Liquids have this characteristic because the particles in them are

Close together but can move past one another

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Particles in a liquid move more

Rapidly than those in a solid, allowing them to overcome the strong attractive forces and flow

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Matter in the gas state has neither

Definite volume not definite shape

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All gases have this characteristic because they are compose of particles that

Move very rapidly and are at great distances from one another

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At these great distances the attractive forces between has particles have

Less of an effect than they do at small distances (liquids and solids)

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Plasma is a

High temperature physical state of matter in which atoms law most of the electrons

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A change of state does not affect the

Identity of a substance

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A chemical property relates to a substances ability to

Undergo changes that transform it into different substances

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Chemical properties are easiest to see when

Substances react to form new substances

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A chemical change or reactions is a change in which one or more substances are

Converts into different substances

69

Substances that react in a chemical change are called

Reactants

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Substances that are formed by the chemical change are called

Products

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Arrows and plus signs can be substituted for the words

Yields and plus

72

Chemical changes and reactions form products whose

Properties differ greatly from those of reactants

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Chemical changes do not affect the total amount of

Matter present before and after a reaction

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When physical or chemical changes occur

Energy is always involved

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Although energy can be absorbed or released in a change it is not

Destroyed or created. It simply assumed a different form: law of conservation of energy

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Composition of a pure substance is the

Same throughout and does not vary sample to sample

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A pure substance can be an

Element or a compound

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Mixtures contain more than

One substance and can vary in composition and properties from sample to sample

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All matter can be classified in terms of

Uniformity of composition and properties or a given sample

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Mixture

A blend of 2 or more kinds of matter each of which retains its own identity and properties

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Components of a mixture are

Mixed together physically and can usually be separated

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The properties of a mixture are a combination of

The properties of its components

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Because mixtures can contain various amounts of different substances

A mixtures composition must be specified in terms o percentage by mass or volume

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Homogenous mixtures

Uniform in composition; have the same proportion of components throughout

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Homogenous mixtures are also called

Solutions

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Heterogenous mixtures

Not uniform throughout

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Some mixtures can be separated by

Filtration or vaporized to separate the different components

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If the solid in a liquid-solid mixture settled to the bottom of the container the liquid

Can be carefully poured off (decanted)

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Centrifuge can be used to

Separate some solid liquid mixtures

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Paper chromatography can be used to

Separate mixtures of dyes or pigments because the different substances move at different rates on the papers

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Any sample of a pure substance is

Homogenous

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Pure substance

Has a fixed composition

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Pure substances differ from mixture because

Every sample has exactly the same characteristic properties and composition

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A compound can be decomposed into

Two or more simpler compounds or elements by a chemical change

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All chemicals have some

Impurities

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The purity ranking of chemical grades can vary when

Agencies differ in their standards

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Primary standard reagent grade is always purer than the

Technical grade for the and chemical

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Chemists need to be aware of the kinds of impurities in a reagent because

Impurities could affect the results of a reaction

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Grades or chemical purity from least to greatest

Technical
FCC
NF
CP
USP
ACS
Primary standard reagents

100

Technical

Industrial chemicals

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FCC

Food chemical code specifications

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NF

National formulary specifications

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CP

Chemically pure; purer than technical grade

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USP

United States pharmacopoeia standards

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Acs

American chemical society specified reagents

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Weight changes with change if

Force of gravity. Mass remains the same

107

Mass is expressed in

Kilograms

108

Weight is measured in

Newtons

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All elements are organized in

Periodic table. Represented by 1,2,3 letter symbols

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Molecule is a natural group of

Atoms held together by covalent bonds

111

Gases are easy to

Compress

112

Plasma conducts

Electric current. Affected by electric and magnetic fluids

113

Alkali metals become

Plasma

114

More than 99% of known matter in the universe is made of

Plasma

115

Exergonic reaction

Net release of free energy

116

Endergonic reaction

Net absorption of energy