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Flashcards in Ch 10 Section 1 Deck (56):
1

scientists developed the kinetic-molecular theory of matter to account for the

behavior of the atoms and molecules that make up matter

2

the kinetic-molecular theory is based on the idea that particles of matter are

always in motion

3

the kinetic-molecular theory can be used to explain the properties of solids, liquids, and gases in terms of the

energy of particles and the forces that act between them

4

the kinetic-molecular theory can help you understand the behavior of gas

molecules and the physical properties of gases

5

the theory provides a model of what is called an

ideal gas

6

an ideal gas is a hypothetical gas that perfectly fits all the assumptions of the

kinetic-molecular theory

7

(5 assumptions of the kinetic-molecular theory) gases consist of large numbers of tiny particles that are

far apart relative to their size

8

(5 assumptions of the kinetic-molecular theory) these particles, usually molecules or atoms, typically occupy a volume that is about 1000 times greater than the

volume occupied by an equal number of particles in the liquid or solid state

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(5 assumptions of the kinetic-molecular theory) molecules of gases are much farther apart than molecules of

liquids or solids

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(5 assumptions of the kinetic-molecular theory) most of the volume occupied by a gas is empty space, which is the reason that gases have a

lower density than liquids and solids do (explains that gases are easily compressed)

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(5 assumptions of the kinetic-molecular theory) collisions between gas particles and between particles and container walls are

elastic collisions

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(5 assumptions of the kinetic-molecular theory) an elastic collision is one in which there is no net loss of

total kinetic energy

13

(5 assumptions of the kinetic-molecular theory) kinetic energy is transferred between two particles during

collisions

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(5 assumptions of the kinetic-molecular theory) however, the total kinetic energy of the two particles remains the same as long as

temperature is constant

15

(5 assumptions of the kinetic-molecular theory) gas particles are in continuous,

rapid, random motion

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(5 assumptions of the kinetic-molecular theory) since gas particles are in continuous, rapid, random motion they possess

kinetic energy, which is energy of motion

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(5 assumptions of the kinetic-molecular theory) gas particles move in all

directions

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(5 assumptions of the kinetic-molecular theory) the kinetic energy of the gas particles overcomes the attractive forces between them, except near the

temperature at which the gas condenses and becomes a liquid

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(5 assumptions of the kinetic-molecular theory) there are no forces of.....gas particles

attraction between

20

(5 assumptions of the kinetic-molecular theory) the temperature of a gas depends on the average

kinetic energy of the particles of the gas

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(5 assumptions of the kinetic-molecular theory) the kinetic energy of any moving object, including a particle, is given by the following equation:

KE= 1/2 mv²

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(5 assumptions of the kinetic-molecular theory) in the equation, m is the

mass of the particle and v is its speed

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because all the particles of a specific gas have the same mass, their kinetic energies depend only on

their speeds

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the average speeds and kinetic energies of gas particles increase with an increase in .... and decrease with a decrease in....

temperature, temperature

25

all gases at the same temperature have the same

average kinetic energy

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at the same temperature, lighter gas particles (like hydrogen molecules) have higher average speeds than do

heavier gas particles, such as oxygen molecules

27

although ideal gases do not actually exist, many gases behave nearly ideally if pressure is not very

high and temperature is not very low

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gases do not have a definite

shape or a definite volume

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gases completely fill any container in which they are

enclosed, and they take its shape

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the fact that gases fill any container and take its shape is explained by the assumptions that gas particles move

rapidly in all directions without significant attraction between them

31

because the attractive forces between gas particles are insignificant (assumption 4) gas particles glide easily

past one another

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this ability to flow causes gases to behave as

liquids do

33

because liquids and gases flow, they are both referred to as

fluids

34

the density of a gaseous substance at atmospheric pressure is about ....the density of the same substance in the...

1/1000; liquid or solid state

35

the reason that the density of a gas is lower than in the other states is that the particles are so much farther apart in the

gaseous state (assumption 1)

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during compression, the gas particles, which are initially very far apart (assumption 1), are

crowded closer together

37

the volume of a given sample of a gas can be greatly

decreased

38

steel cylinders containing gases under pressure are widely

used in industry

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when they are full, such cylinders may contain more than 100 times as many particles of gas as

nonpressurized containers of the same size could contain

40

gases spread out and mix with one another, even without being

stirred

41

diffusion is the spontaneous mixing of the .... of two substances caused by their

particles; random motion

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gases diffuse readily into one another and mix together due to the rapid motion of the molecules and the

empty space between the molecules

43

effusion is a process by which gas particles pass through a

tiny opening

44

the rates of effusion of different gases are directly proportional to the

velocities of their particles

45

because of this proportionality, molecules of low mass effuse...than molecules of high mass

faster

46

because particles of gases occupy space and exert attractive forces on each other, all real gases deviate to some degree from

ideal gas behavior

47

a real gas is a gas that does not behave completely, according to the

assumptions of the kinetic-molecular theory

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at very high pressures and low temperatures, the gas particles will be closer together and their kinetic energy will be insufficient to

overcome completely the attractive forces

49

at such conditions, the gas is most likely to behave like a

non-ideal gas

50

the kinetic-molecular theory is more likely to hold true for gases whose particles have little

attraction for each other

51

the noble gases show essentially ideal gas behavior over a wide range of

temperatures and pressures

52

the particles of noble gases are monatomic and thus

nonpolar

53

the particles of gases, such as nitrogen and hydrogen, are nonpolar

diatomic molecules

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the behavior of these molecules (diatomic) most closely approximates that of the

ideal gas under certain conditions

55

the more polar the molecules of a gas are, the greater the attractive forces between them and the more the gas will

deviate from ideal gas behavior

56

highly polar gases deviate from ideal behavior to a larger degree than

nonpolar gases