Ch 13 Section 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 13 Section 1 Deck (71):
1

solid compounds can be

ionic or molecular

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in an ionic solid, a crystal structure is made up of .. held together by ...

charged particles; ionic attractions

3

in a molecular solid, molecules are composed of

covalently bonded atoms

4

the solid is held togher by ..., ... forces

noncovalent; intermolecular

5

when they dissolve in water, ionic compounds and molecular compounds behave

differently

6

when a compound that is made of ions dissolves in water, the

ions separate from one another

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this separation of ions that occurs when an ionic compound dissolves is called

dissociation

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assuming 100% dissociation, a solution that contains 1 mol of sodium chloride contains .. of Na+ ions and ... of Cl- ions

1 mol; 1 mol

9

a solution that contains 1 mol of calcium chloride contains .. of Ca2+ ions and ... of Cl- ions

1 mol; 2 mol

10

although no ionic compound is completely insoluble, compounds of very low solubility can be considered ... for most ...

insoluble; practical purposes

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it is difficult to write solubility rules that cover all

possible conditions

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most sodium compounds are

soluble

13

most phosphates are

insoluble

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dissociation equations cannot be written for

insoluble compounds

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if the mixing results in a combination of ions that forms an insoluble compound, a ... reaction and ... will occur

double-displacement; precipitation

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precipitation occurs when the attraction between the ions is greater than the attraction between the

ions and surrounding water molecules

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to decide whether a precipitate can form, you must know the

solubilities of these two compounds

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reactions of ions in aqueous solution are usually represented by ... rather than...

net ionic equations; formula equations

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a net ionic equation includes only those compounds and ions that undergo a

chemical change in a reaction in an aqueous solution

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to write a net ionic equation, you first convert the chemical equation into an

overall ionic equation

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all soluble ionic compounds are shown as

dissociated ions in solution

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the precipitates are shown as

solids

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ions that do not take part in a chemical reaction and are found in solution both before and after the reaction are

spectator ions

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to convert an ionic equation into a net ionic equation, the ... are ... on both sides of the equation

spectator ions; canceled

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some molecular compounds can also form

ions in solution (polar compounds)

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ions are formed from solute molecules by the action of the solvent in a process called

ionization

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the more general meaning of ionization is the creation of

ions where there were none

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when n ionic compound dissolves, the ions that were already present

separate from one another

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when a molecular compound dissolves and ionizes in a polar solvent, ions are formed where

non existed in the undissolved compound

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like all ions in aqueous solution, the ions formed by such a molecular solute are

hydrated

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the energy released as heat during the hydration of the ions provides the energy needed to

break the covalent bonds

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the extent to which a solute ionizes in solution depends on the strength of the bonds within the .. and the strength of attraction between the ...

molecules of the solute; solute and solvent molecules

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if the strength of a bond within the solute molecule is weaker than the attractive forces of the solvent molecules, then the covalent bond of the solute ... and the ...

breaks; molecule is separated into ions

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HCl is a molecular compound that

ionizes in aqueous solution

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the attraction between a polar HCL molecule and the mpolar water molecules is strong enough to break the HCL bond, forming

hydrogen and chloride ions

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many molecular compounds contain a hydrogen atom bonded by a

polar covalent bon d

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some of these compounds ionize in an aqueous solution to release

H+

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the H+ ion attracts other molecules or ions so strongly that it does not normally

exist alone

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the ionization of hydrgoen chloride in water is better described a a chemical reaction in which a proton is transferred directly from HCl to awater molecule, where it becomes

covalently bonded to oxygen and forms H3O+

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the H3O+ ion is known as the

hydronium ion

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the reaction of the H+ ion to form the hydronium ion produces much of the energy needed to

ionize a molecular solute

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substances that yield ions and conduct an electric current in solution are

electroylytes

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substances that do not yield ions and do not conduct an electric current in solution are

nonelectrolytes

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the hydrogen halides are all molecular compounds with single

polar-covalent bonds

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all hydrogen halides are gases, all are very solubler in water, and all are

electrolytes

46

HCl, hydrogen bromide, and HI strongly conduct an

electric current in an aqueous solution

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however, hydrogen fluoride only weakly conducts an electric current at the

same concentration

48

the strength with which substances conduct an electric current is related to their

ability to form ions in solution

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HCL, hydrogen bromide, and hydrogen iodide are 100% ionized in

dilute aqueous solution

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a strong electrolyte is any compound whose dilute aqueous solutions

conduct electricity well

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the conductivity of strong electrolytes is due to the presence of all or almost all of the dissolved

compound in the form of ions

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HCL, hydrogen bromide, and HI are all

acids in aqueous solution

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these acids, several other acids, and all soluble ionic compounds are

strong electrolytes

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the distinguishing feature of strong electrolytes is that to whatever extent they dissolve in water, they

yield only ions

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for example, some strong electrolytes, such as NaCL, may be highly soluble in water and form

ions in solution

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others may not dissolve much, but the amount that does dissolve exists solely as

ions in solution

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some molecular compounds form aqueous solutions that contain not only dissolved ions but also some dissolved molecules that are not

ionized

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HF dissolves in water to give an acidic solution known as

hydrofluoric acid

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However, the HF bond is much stronger than the bonds between

hydrogen and other halogens

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when HF dissolves, some molecules

ionize

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but the reverse reaction--the transfer of H+ ions back to F- ions to form hydrogen fluoride molecules--

also takes place

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hydrogen fluoride is an example of a

weak electrolyte

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a weak electrolyte is any compound whose dilute aquous solutions conduct

electricity poorly

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the poor conductivity of weak electrolytes is due to the presence of a small amount of the

dissolved compound in the form of ions

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this is in contrast to a nonelectrolyte which dissolves but does not produce any

ions in solution

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another example of a weak electolyte is CH3COOH,

acetic acid

67

the description of an electrolyte as strong or weak must not be confused with the description of a solution as

concentrated or dilute

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strong and weak electolytes differ in the degree of

ionization or dissociation

69

concentrated and dilute solutions differ in the amount of

solute dissolved in a given quantity of a solvent

70

hydrochloric acid is always a

strong electrolyte

71

acetic acid is always considered a

weak electrolyte