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Flashcards in Ch 10 Section 2 Deck (56):
1

liquids are the least common state of

matter in the universe

2

liquids are less common than solids and gases because a substance can exist in the liquid state only within a r

relatively narrow range of temperatures and pressures

3

a liquid can be described as a form of matter tha has a definite volume and

takes the shape of its container

4

the properties of liquids can be undrstood by applying the kinetic-molecular theory, considering the

motion and arrangement of molecules and the attractive forces between them

5

particles in a liquid are in

constant motion

6

the particles in a liquid are closer together than the particles in a

gas are

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the attractive forces between particles in a liquid are more effective than those between

particles in a gas

8

this attraction between liquid particles is caused by

intermolecular forces: dipole-dipole, London dispersion forces, and hydrogen bonding

9

some molecules at the surface of a liquid can have enough kinetic energy to overcome these forces and

enter the gas state

10

liquids are more ordered than gases because of the stronger intermolecular forces and the lower

mobility of the liquid particles

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according to the kinetic-molecular theory of liquids, the particles are not

bound together in fixed position. they move about constantly (explains why liquids & gases are fluids)

12

fluid is a substance that can flow and therefore

take the shape of its container

13

most liquids naturally flow downhill because of

gravity

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some liquids can flow in other

directions as well

15

at normal atmospheric pressure, most substances are hundreds of times denser in a liquid state than in a

gaseous tate

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this higher density is a result of the close arrangement of

liquid particles

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most substances are only slightly less dense (about 10%) in a liquid state than in a

solid state

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water is one of the few substances that becomes less

dense when it solidifies

19

at the same temperature and pressure, different liquids can

differ greatly in densithy

20

when liquid water at 20 degrees celsius is compressed by a pressure of 1000 atm, its volume decreases by only

4%→behavior is typical of all liqudis and similar to behavior of solids

21

a gas under pressure of 1000 atm would have only 1/1000 of its volume at

normal atmospheric pressure

22

liquids are much less compressible than gases because liquid particles are

more closely packed together

23

like gases, liquids can transmit

pressure equally in all directions

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liquids also diffuse and mix with other

liquids

25

any liquid gradually diffuses throughout any other liquid in which it

can dissolve

26

the constant, random motion of particles causes diffusion in liquids, as it does in

gases

27

yet diffusion is much slower in liquids because liquid particles are

closer together

28

theh attractive forces between the particles of a liquid

slow their movement

29

as the temperature of a liquid is increased, diffusion occurs more

rapidly

30

the reason is that average kinetic energy, and therefore the average speed of the particles, is

incresaed

31

a property common to all liquids is surface tension: a forced that tends to pull adjacent parts of a liquid's surface together, thereby decreasing

surface area to the smallest possible size

32

surface tension results from the attractive forces between

particles of a liqudi

33

the higher the force of attraction, the higher the

surface tension

34

water has a higher surface tension than most liquids because of the hydrogen bonds water molecules can

form with each other

35

the molecules at the surface of the water can form hydrogen bonds with the other water molecules beneath them and beside them, but not with

the molecules in the air above them

36

the surface water molecules are drawn togethyer and toward the body of the liquid, creating a

high surface tension

37

surface tension causes liquid droplets to take on a spherical shape because a sphere has the smallest possible

surface area for a given volume

38

capillary action, the attraction of the surface of a

liquid to the surface of a solid

39

capillary action is a property closely related to

surface tension

40

a liquid will rise quite high in a very narrow tube and will wet the tube if a strong attraction exists between the liquid molecules and the molecules that make up the

surface of the tube

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this attraction tends to pull the liquid molecules upward along the surface and against the

pull of gravity

42

this process continues until the attractive forces between the liquid molecules and the surface of the tube are

balanced by the weight of the liquid

43

capillary action can occur between

water molecules and paper fibers

44

capillary action is at least partly responsible for the transportation of water from the roots of a plant to its

leaves t

45

capillary action is also responsible for the concave liquid surface, called a meniscus, that forms in a

test tube or graduated cylinder

46

the process by which a liquid or solid changes to a gas is

vaporization

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evaporation is the process by which particles escape from the surface of a

nonboiling liquid and enter the gas state

48

evaporation occurs because the particles of a liquid have different

kinetic energies

49

particles with higher-than-average energies move

faster

50

some surface particles with higher-than-average energies can overcome the

intermolecular forces that bind them to the liquid and can then escape into the gas state

51

evaporation removes fresh water from the surface of the ocean, leaving behind a heigher

concentration of salts

52

boiling is the change of a liquid to bubbles of vapor that appear

throughout the liquid

53

when a liquid is cooled, the average energy of its particles

decreases

54

if the energy is low enough, attractive forces pull the particles into an even more

orderly arrangement

55

the physical change of a liquid to a solid by removal of energy as heat is called

freezing or solidification

56

all liquids freeze, although not necessarily at temperatures you

normally encounter