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Flashcards in Quarterly 4 review Deck (334):
1

(Ch 1) chemistry is the study of the ..., ..., and ... of matter and the changes that matter undergoes

composition; structure; properties

2

(Ch 1) a chemical is any substance that has a

definite composition or is used or produced in a chemical process

3

(Ch 1) basic research is carried out for the sake of

increasing knowledge

4

(Ch 1) applied research is carried out to

solve practical problems

5

(Ch 1) technological development involves the use of existing knowledge to

make life easier or more convenient

6

(Ch 1) all matter has ... and ...

mass; takes up space

7

(Ch 1) mass is one measure of the

amount of matter

8

(Ch 1) chemical properties refer to a substance's ability to

undergo changes that alter its composition and identity

9

(Ch 1) an element is composed of one kind of

atom

10

(Ch 1) compounds are made from two or more

elements in fixed proportions

11

(Ch 1) all substances have characterisitc properties that enable chemists to tell the

substances apart and to separate the substances

12

(Ch 1) physical changes do not involve changes in

identity of a substance

13

(Ch 1) the three major states of matter are

solid, liquid, and gas

14

(Ch 1) changes of state, such as melting and boiling, are

physical changes

15

(Ch 1) in a chemical change (chemical reaction) the

identity of the substance changes

16

(Ch 1) energy changes accompany

physical and chemical changes

17

(Ch 1) energy may be released or absorbed, but it is neither

created nor destroyed

18

(Ch 1) matter can be classified into

mixtures and pure substances

19

(Ch 1) each element has a

unique symbol

20

(Ch 1) the periodic table shows the elements organized by their

chemical properties

21

(Ch 1) columns on the table respresent .. or ... of elements that have similar ...

groups; families; chemical properties

22

(Ch 1) properties vary across the rows, or

periods

23

(Ch 1) the elements can be classified as ..., ..., ..., and ...

metals, nonmetals, metalloids, noble gases

24

(Ch 1) these classes occupy different areas of the periodic table. metals tend to be, ...., ..., and ... and tend to be good....

shiny; malleable; ductile; conductors

25

(Ch 1) nonmetals tend to be ... and tend to be poor..

brittle; conductors

26

(Ch 1) metalloids are intermediate in properties between .. and ...., and they tend to be ... of electricity

metals; nonmetals; semiconductors

27

(Ch 1) the noble gases are generally

unreactive elements

28

(Ch 1) extensive properties depend on the amount of matter that is

present

29

(Ch 1) intensive properties do not depend on the

amount of matter present

30

(Ch 1) a physical property is a characteristic that can be observed or measured without changing the

identity of the substance

31

(Ch 1) a chemical proeprty relates to a substance's ability to undergo changees that transform it into

different substances

32

(ch 2) the scientific method is a logical approach to

solving problems that lend themselves to investigation

33

(ch 2) a hypothesis is a testable statemtn that serves as the

basis for predictions and further experiments

34

(ch 2) a theory is a broad generalization that explains a body of

known facts or phenomena

35

(ch 2) the result of nearly every measurement is a

number and a unit

36

(ch 2) the SI system of measurement has seven base units:

meter (length)
kilogram (mass)
second (time)
kelvin (temperature)
mole (amount of substance)
ampere (electric current)
candela (luminous intensity)

37

(ch 2) weight is a measure fo the

gravitational pull on matter

38

(ch 2) derived Si units include the ... and the ...

square meter (area); cubic meter (volume)

39

(ch 2) density is the ratio of

mass to volume

40

(ch 2) conversion factors are used to convert from

one unit to another

41

(ch 2) accuracy refers to the closeness of a measurement to the

correct or accepted value

42

(ch 2) precision refers to the closeness of values for a

set of measurements

43

(ch 2) percentage error is the difference between the experimental and the accepted value that is

divided by the accepted value and then multiplied by 100

44

(ch 2) the significant figures in a number consist of all digits known with certainty plus

one final digit, which is uncertain

45

(ch 2) after addition or subtraction, the answer should be rounded so that it has no more digits to the right of the decimal point that there are in the measurement that has the

smallest number of digits to the right of the decimal point

46

(ch 2) after multiplication or division, the answer should be rounded so that it has no more significant figures than there are in the measurement that has

the fewest number of significant figures

47

(ch 2) exact conversion factors are completely certain and do not limit the number of

digits in a calculation

48

(ch 2) a number written in scientific notation is of the form ... in which M is greater than or equal to 1 but less than 10 and n is an integer

M x 10^n

49

(ch 2) two quantities are directly proportional to each other if dividing one by the other

yields a constant value

50

(ch 2) two quantities are inversely proportional to each other if their product has a

constant value

51

(ch 2) a system is a specific portion of matter in a given region of space that has been selected for study

during an experiment or observation

52

(ch 2) a model in science is more than a physical object; it is often an explanation of how phenomena occur and how

data or events are related

53

(ch 2) a quantity is something that has

magnitude, size, or amount

54

(ch 2) dimensional analysis is a mathematical technique that allows you to use units to

solve problems involving measurements

55

(ch 3) john dalton proposed a scientific theory of atoms that can still be used to explain

properties of most chemicals today

56

(ch 3) matter and its mass cannot be ... or .... in chemical reactions

created; destroyed

57

(ch 3) the mass ratios of the elements that make up a given compound are always the ..., regardless of how much of the compound there ... or how it ...

same; is; was formed

58

(ch 3) if two or more different compounds are composed of the same two elements, then the ratio of the masses of the second element combined with a certain mass of the first element can be expressed as

a ratio of small whole numbers

59

(ch 3) cathode-ray tubes supplied evidence of the existence of

electrons

60

(ch 3) electrons are negatively charged subatomic particles that have relatively

little mass

61

(ch 3) rutherford found evidence for the existence of the atomic nucleus by bombarding gold foil with a

beam of positively charged particles

62

(ch 3) atomic nuclei are composed of ..., which have an electric charge of ..., and (in all but one case) neutrons, which have .. electric charge

protons; +1; no

63

(ch 3) atomic nuclei have radii of about ...., and atoms have radii of about ...

.001 pm; 40-270 pm

64

(ch 3) the atomic number of an element is equal to the number of

protons of an atom of that element

65

(ch 3) the mass number is equal to the total number of protons and neutrons that make up the

nucleus of an atom of that element

66

(ch 3) the relative atomic mass unit (amu) is based on the ... atom and is a convenient unit for measuring the ... of atoms

carbon-12; mass

67

(ch 3) the average atomic mass of an element is found by calculating the .... of the atomic masses of the naturally occuring ... of the element

weighted average; isotopes

68

(ch 3) avogadro's number is equal to approximately.... a sample that contains a number of particles equal to Avogadro's number contains a ... of those particles

6.022 x 10^23; mole

69

(ch 3) atom is the smallest particle of an element that retains the

chemical properties of that element

70

(ch 3) nuclear forces are short range ..., ...., and ... forces that hold the nuclear particles ...

proton-neutron, proton-proton, and neutron-neutron; together

71

(ch 3) isotopes are atoms of the same element that have

different masses

72

(ch 3) nuclide is a general term for a specific

isotope of an element

73

(ch 3) a mole is the amount of a substance that contains as many particles as there are atoms in exactly

12 g of carbon-12

74

(ch 3) molar mass is the mass of ... of a pure substance

one mole

75

(ch 4) in the early 20th century, light was determined to have a dual

wave-partticle nature

76

(ch 4) quantum theory was developed to explain observations such as the ... and the .... of hydrogen

photoelectric effect; line-emission spectrum

77

(ch 4) quantum theory states that electrons can exist only at specific

atomic energy levels

78

(ch 4) when an electron moves from one main energy level to a main energy level of lower energy, a .... is emitted. the ... energy equals the energy difference between ....

photon; photon's; the two levels

79

(ch 4) an electron in an atom can move from one main energy level to a higher main enrgy level only by absorbing an amount of energy exactly equal to the

difference between the two levels

80

(ch 4) electrons were determined to have a dual

wave-particle nature

81

(ch 4) the heisenberg uncertainty principle states that it is impossible to determine simultaneously the ... and ... of an ... or any other ...

velocity; position; electron; particle

82

(ch 4) quantization of electron energies is a natural outcome of othe .... which describes the properties of an atom's ...

Schrodinger wave equation; electrons

83

(ch 4) an orbital, a....., shows the regin in space where an electron is most likely to be ...

3d region around the nucleus; found

84

(ch 4) the four quantum numbers that describe the properties of electrons in atomic orbitals are the:

principal quantum number
angular momentum quantum number:
magnetic quantum number
spin quantum number

85

(ch 4) the ground-state electron configuration of an atom can be written by using the:

aufbau principle
hund's rule
pauli exclusion principle

86

(ch 4) electron configurations can be depicted by using different types of notation such as:

orbital notation
electron-configuration notation
noble-gas notation

87

(ch 4) electron configurations of some atoms, such as Cr, deviate from the predictions of the Aufbau principle, but the ground-state configuration that results is the configuration with the

minimum possible energy

88

(ch 4) electromagnetic radiation: form of energy that exhibits

wavelike behavior as it travels through space

89

(ch 4) electromagnetic spectrum formed by

all forms of electromagnetic radiation

90

(ch 4) wavelength: the distance between corresponding points on

adjacent waves

91

(ch 4) frequency: defined as the number of waves that pass a given point in a

specific time, usually one second

92

(ch 4) photoelectric effect: emission of electrons from a metal when

light shines on the metal

93

(ch 4) quantum of energy is the minimum quantity of energy that can be

lost or gained by an atom

94

(ch 4) photon: particle of electromagnetic radiation having

zero mass and carrying a quantum of energy

95

(ch 4) ground state: lowest ... of an atom

energy state

96

(ch 4) excited state: a state in which an atom has a higher ... than it has in its ....

potential energy; ground state

97

(ch 4) continuous spectrum: emission of a continuous range of

frequencies of electromagnetic radiation

98

(ch 4) principal quantum number: n, indicates the main

energy level occupied by electron

99

(ch 4) angular momentum quantum number, l, indicates the

shape of the orbital

100

(ch 4) magnetic quantum number, m, indicates the orientation of an

orbital around the nucleus

101

(ch 4) spin quantum number has only two possible values (+1/2, -1/2) which indicate the two fundamental

spin states of an eelctron in an orbital

102

(ch 4) aufbau principle: an electron ocupies the lowest-energy

orbital that can receive it

103

(ch 4) pauli exclusion principle: no two electrons in the same atom can have the same

set of four quantum numbers

104

(ch 4) hund's rule: orbitals of equal energy are each occupied by one electron before any orbital is occupied by a second electron, and all electrons in singlyu occupied orbitals must have

the same spin state

105

(ch 5) the periodic law states that the physical and chemical properties of the elements are

periodic functionso ftheir atomic numbers

106

the periodic table is an arrangement of the elements in order of their atomic numbers so that elements with simialr properties

fall in the same column

107

(ch 5) the columns in the periodic table are referred to as

groups

108

(ch 5) the rows in the periodic table are called

periods

109

(ch 5) many chemical properties of the elements can be explained by the configurations of the

elements' outermost electrons

110

(ch 5) the nobel gases exhibit unique chemical stability because their highest occupied levels have an

octet of electrons, ns^2np^6

111

(ch 5) based on the electron configurations of the elements, the periodic table can be divided into four blocks:

s, p, d, and f

112

(ch 5) the groups and periods of the periodic table display general trends in following proterties:

electron affinity; electronegativity; ionization energy; atomoic radius; ionic radius

113

(ch 5) the electrons in an atom that are available to lost, gained, or shared in the formation of chemical compounds are

valence electrons

114

(ch 5) in determining the electron configuration of an ion, the order in which electrons are removed from the atom is the reverse of the order given by the

atom's electron-configuration notation

115

(ch 5) lanthanides are 14 elements with atomic numbers from

58 to 71

116

(ch 5) actinides are 14 elements with atomic numbers from

90 to 103

117

(ch 5) alkali metals:

group 1

118

(ch 5) alkaline-earth metals:

group 2

119

(ch 5) transition elements: d-block elements with typical

metallic properties

120

(ch 5) main-group elements:

p-block and s-block elements

121

(ch 5) halogens:

group 17

122

(ch 5) atomic radius: 1/2 distance between

nucei of identical atoms that are bonded

123

(ch 5) ion: an atom or group of bonded atoms that has a

postive/ negative charge

124

(ch 5) ionization: any process that results int he formation of

an ion

125

(ch 5) ionization energy: energy required to remove

one electron from a neutral atom of an element

126

(ch 5) electron affinity: energy change that occurs when an electron is

acquired by a neutral atom

127

(ch 5) cation:

positive ion

128

(ch 5) anion:

negative ion

129

(ch 5) electronegativity: measure of the ability of an atom in a chemical compound to attract

electrons from another atom in the compound

130

(ch 6) most atoms are ... to other atoms

chemically bonded

131

(ch 6) the three major types oc hemical bonding are

ionic, covalent, and metallic

132

(ch 6) in general, atoms of metals bond ionically with atoms of

nonmetals

133

(ch 6) atoms of metals bond metallically with

each other

134

(ch 6) and atoms of nonmetals bond

covalently with each other

135

(ch 6) atoms in molecules are joined by

covalent bonds

136

(ch 6) in a covalent bond, two atoms share

one or more pairs of electrons

137

(ch 6) the octet rule states that many chemical compounds tend to form bonds so that each atom shares or has

eight electrons in its highest occupied energy level

138

(ch 6) bonding within many molecules and ions can be indicated by a

lewis structure

139

(ch 6) molecules or ions that cannot be correctly represented by a single Lewis structure are represented by

resonance structures

140

(ch 6) an ionic compound is a 3d network of

cations and anions mutually attracted to each other

141

(ch 6) ionic compounds tend to be harder and more brittle and to have higher ... than materials containing only ....

boiling points; covalently bonded atoms

142

(ch 6) the "electron sea" formed in metallic bonding gives metals their properties of .... and ... conductivity, ..., ..., and ...

high electrical; thermal; malleability; ductility; luster

143

(ch 6) vsepr theory is used to predic tthe ... of molecules based on the fact that electron pairs strognly

shape; strongly repel each other

144

(ch 6) hybridization theory is used to predict the shapes of molecules based on the fact that orbitals within an atom can

mix to form orbitals of equal energy

145

(ch 6) intermolecular forces include ... and ...

dipole-dipole forces; london dispersion forces

146

(ch 6) hydrogen bonding is a special case of

dipole-dipole forces

147

(ch 6) chemical bond: mutual electrical attraction between nuclei and valence electrons of

different atoms that binds the atoms together

148

(ch 6) ionic bonding: chemical bonding that results from electrical attraction between

cations and anions

149

(ch 6) covalent bonding: sharing of electron pairs between

two atoms

150

(ch 6) nonpolar-covalent bond: covalent bond in which bonding electrons are shared equally by the bonded atoms, resulitng in a balanced

distribution of electrical charge

151

(ch 6) a polar-covalent bond is a covalent bond in whicht he bonded atoms have an

unequal attraction for the shared electrons

152

(ch 6) molecule: neuttral group of atoms that are held together by

covalent bonds

153

(ch 6) molecular compound: chemical compound whose simplest units are

molecules

154

(ch 6) chemical formula: indicates relative numbers of atoms of each kind in a chemical compound by using

atomic symbols and numerical subscripts

155

(ch 6) molecular formula: shows types and numbers of atoms combined in a single molecule of a

molecular ompound

156

(ch 6) bond energy: energy required to ... a chemical bond and form...

break; neutral isolated atoms

157

(ch 6) structural formula: indicates..., ..., ..., and /... but not the unshared pairs of the atoms in a molecule

kind; number; arrangement; bonds

158

(ch 6) single bond: covalent bond in which one pair of electrons is shared between

two atoms

159

(ch 6) multiple bonds:

deouble and triple bonds

160

(ch 6) formula unit: simplest collection of atoms from which an ionic compound's formula can be

established

161

(ch 6) lattice enrgy: energy released when one mole of an ionci crystalline compound is

formed from gaseous ions

162

(ch 6) polyatomic ion: charged group fo

covalently bonded atoms

163

(ch 6) metallic bonding: chemical bonding that results from the attraction betweern ... and the surrounding...

metal atoms; sea of electrons

164

(ch 6) malleability: ability of a substance to be ... or ...

hhammered; beaten into sheets

165

(ch 6) ductility: ability of substance to be ..,..., or .... through a small opening to produce a wire

drawn; pulled; extruded

166

(ch 6) hybrid orbitals: orbitals of equal energy produced by the combination of two or more

orbitals on the same atom

167

(ch 6) dipole is created by equal but opposite charges that are

separated by a short distance

168

(ch 6) hydrogen bonding: intermolecular force in which a hydrogen atom that is bonded to a highly electronegative atom is attracted to an ubnshared pair of electrons of an

electronegative atom in a nearby molecule

169

(ch 6) london dispersion forces: intermolecular attractions resulting fromt he cosntant motion of electrosn and the creation fo

instantaneous dipoles

170

(ch 7) positive monatomic ion is identified simply by the name of the

appropriate element

171

(ch 7) a negative monatomic ion is named by dropping parts of the ending of the element's name and adding

-ide to the root

172

(ch 7) the charge of each ion in an ionic comjpound may be used to determine the simplest

chemical formula for the compound

173

(ch 7) binary compounds are composed of

two elemetns

174

(ch 7) binary ionic compounds are named by combining the names of the

positive and negative ions

175

(ch 7) the old system of naming binary molecular compounds uses

prefixes

176

(ch 7) the new system, known ans the Stock system, uses

oxidation numbers

177

(ch 7) oxidation numbers are useful in ..., writing..., and in ....

naming compounds; formulas; balancing chemical equations

178

(ch 7) compounds containing elements that have more than one oxidation state are named by using the

stock system

179

(ch 7) stock-system names and prefix-system names are used... for many molecular compounds

interchangeably

180

(ch 7) oxidation numbers of each element in a compound may be used to determine the compound's simplest

chemical formula

181

(ch 7) by knowing oxidation numbers, we can name compounds without knowing whether theya re

ionic or molecular

182

(ch 7) ...,..., and ... cnan be calculated form the chemical formula for a compound

formula mass, molar mass, percentage composition

183

(ch 7) percentage composition of a compound si the percentage by mass of each

element in the compound

184

(ch 7) molar mass is used as conversion factor between amojunt in moles and mass in grams of a given

compound/ element

185

(ch 7) an empirical formula shows the simplest whole number ratio of

atoms in a given compound

186

(ch 7) empirical formulas indicate how many atoms of each elemnt are combined in the simplest

unit of a chemical compound

187

(ch 7) a molecular formula can be found from the empirical formula if the

molar mass is measured

188

(ch 7) oxyanion: polyatomic ions that

contian oxygen

189

(ch 7) salt: an ionic compound composed of a ... and the ... from an acid

cation; anion

190

(ch 7) oxidation state: assiged to the atoms composing the

compound or ion

191

(ch 7) formula mass: sum of the average atomic masses of

all atoms represented in the formula

192

(Ch 8) four observations that suggest a chemical reaction is taking place are the

evolution of energy as heat and light
production of gas
change in color
formation of a precipitate

193

(Ch 8) a balanced chemical equation represents, with symbols and formulas, the identities and relative amoutns of

products in a chemical reactio

194

(Ch 8) synthesis rections equation:

A+X→AX

195

(Ch 8) decomposition reaction equation

AX→A + X

196

(Ch 8) single-displacement reactions represented by two equation:

A + BX→AX + B
Y + BX→BY + X

197

(Ch 8) double diosplacement reaction equatio

AX + BY→AY + BX

198

(Ch 8) in a combustion reaction, a substance combines with..., realsing energy in the form of ... and ...

oxygen; heat; light

199

(Ch 8) activity series list the elements in order of their chemical reactivity and are useful in predicting wither a

chemical reaction will occur

200

(Ch 8) chemists determine activity series through

experiments

201

(Ch 8) precipitate: a solid that is produced as a result of a chemical reaction in solution and that

separates from the solutio

202

(Ch 8) coefficient: small whole number that ppears in front of a

formula in a chemical equation

203

(Ch 8) word equation: an equation in which the reactants and products in a chemical reactiona represented by

words

204

(Ch 8) formula equation: represents reactants and products of a chemical reaction by their

symbols or formulas

205

(Ch 8) electrolysis: decomposition of a substance by an

electric current

206

(ch 9) reaction stoichiometry involves the mass relationships between

reactants and products in a chemical reaction

207

(ch 9) relating one substance to another requires expressing the amount of each

substance in moles

208

(ch 9) a mole ratio is the conversion factor that relates the amount in ... of any two substances in a ...

moles; chemical reaction

209

(ch 9) the mole ratio is derived from the

balanced equation

210

(ch 9) amount of a substance is expressed in...., and mass of a substance is expressed by using mass units such ass..., ..., or ...

moles; grams; kilograms; milligrams

211

(ch 9) mass and amount of substance are.., wherars moles and grams are ...

quantities; units

212

(ch 9) a balanced chemical equation is necessary to solve any

stoichiometric problem

213

(ch 9) in an ideal stoichiometric calculation, the mass or the amount of any reactnat or product can be calculated if the .... and the ... or ... of any other reactant or product is known

balanced chemical equation; mass; amount

214

(ch 9) in actual reactions, the reactants may be present in proportions that differ from the stoichiometric proportions required for a complete reaction in which all of

each reactant is converted to product

215

(ch 9) the limiting reactant controls the .... of product formed

maximum possible amount

216

(ch 9) for many reactions, the quantity of a product is less than the

theoretical maximum for that product

217

(ch 9) percentage yield shows the relationship between the ... and ... for the product of a reaction

theoretical yield; actual yield

218

(ch 9) composition stochiometry: deals with the mass relationships of

elements in compounds

219

(ch 9) excess reactant: substance that is not

used up completely in a reaction

220

(ch 9) theoretical yield: maximum amount of product that can be produced from a

giv en amount of reactant

221

(ch 9) actual yield: measured amount of a product obtained from a

reaction

222

(ch 10) the kinetic-molecular theory of matter can be used to explain the properties of

gases, liquids, and solids

223

(ch 10) the kinetic-molecular theory of gases describes a model of an

ideal gas

224

(ch 10) gases consist of large numbers of tiny, fast-moving ... that are ... relative to their sized

particles; far apart

225

(ch 10) particles of a liquid are ... and more ... than those of a gas and are less ... than those of a solid

closer together; ordered; ordered

226

(ch 10) liquids have a definite ... and a fairly high ..., and they are relatively ....

volume; density; incompressible

227

l(ch 10) like gases, liquids can .. and are thus considered to be ...

flow; fluids

228

(ch 10) the particles of a solid ar enot nearly as free to ... as those of a liquid or gas

move about

229

(ch 10) solids have a definite .. and may be ... or ...

shape; crystalline; amorphous

230

(ch 10) solids have a definite ... and are generally non...

volume; nonfluid

231

(ch 10) a crystal structure is the total 3d array of ... that describes teh arrangement of the ..

.points; particles of a crystal

232

(ch 10) unlike crystalline solids, amorphous solids do not have a highly.... or a regular...

ordered structure; shape

233

(ch 10) a liquid in a closed system will gradually reach a... as the rate at which molecules ... equals the rate at which they...

liquid-vapor equilibrium; condense; evaporate

234

(ch 10) when two opposing changes occur at equal rates in the same closed system, nthe system is said to be in

dynamic equilibrium

235

(ch 10) water is a

polar covalent compound

236

(ch 10) the structure and the hydrogen bonding in water are responsible for its relatively high...., molar ....., ....., and molar....

melting point; enthalpy of fusion; boiling point; enthalpy of vaporization

237

(ch 10) ideal gas: hypothetical gas that perfectly fits all the assumptions of the

kinetic-molecular theory

238

(ch 10) elastic collision: one in which there is no net loss of

total kinetic energy

239

(ch 10) diffusion: result of the spontaneous ... of the particles of two substances caused by their....

mixing; random motion

240

(ch 10) effusion: process by which gas particles pass through a

tiny opening

241

(ch 10) real gas: a gas that does not behave completely according to the assumptions of the

kinetic-molecular theory

242

(ch 10) fluid: substance that can ... and therefore take the ... of of its container

flow; shape

243

(ch 10) surface tension: force that tends to pull adjacent parts of aliquid's surface ..., thereby decreasign

together; surface area to the smallest possible size

244

(ch 10) capillary action: attraction of the surface of a liquid to the s

surface of a solid

245

(ch 10) vaporization: process by which a liquid or solid

changes to a gas

246

(ch 10) evaporation: process by which particles escape from the surface of a nonboiling liquid and

enter the gas state

247

(ch 10) freezing/ solidification: physical change of a liquid to a solid by

removal of energy as heat

248

(ch 10) crystalline solids: consist of

crystals

249

(ch 10) amorphous solid: one in which the particles are

arranged randomly

250

(ch 10) meltin: physical change of a solid to a liquid by the addition of

nergy as heat

251

(ch 10) melting point: temperature at which a solid

becomes a liquid

252

(ch 10) supercooled liquids: substances that retain certain liquid properties even at

temperatures at which they appear to be solid

253

(ch 10) crystal: a substance in which the particles are arranged in an

orderly, geometric, repeating pattern

254

(ch 10) unit cell: the smallest portionof a crystal lattice that shows the

3d pattern of the entire lattice

255

(ch 10) phase; any part of a system that has

uniform composition and properties

256

(ch 10) condensation: process by which a gas changes to a

liquid

257

(ch 10) equilibrium: dynamic condition in which two opposing changes occur at

equal rates in a closed system

258

(ch 10) equilibrium vapor presssure: pressure exerted by a vapor in equilibrium with its

corresponding liquid at a given temeprature

259

(ch 10) volatile liquids: liquids that

evaporate readily

260

(ch 10) boiling: conversion of a liquid to a vapor within the liquid as well as

at its surface

261

(ch 10) boiling point: temeprature at which the equilibrium vapor pressure of the liquid equals

the atmospheric pressure

262

(ch 10) molar enthalpy of vaporization: amount of energy as heat that is needed to vaporize on mole of liquid at the liquid's

boiling point at constant pressure

263

(ch 10) freezing point: temperature at whicht eh solid and liquid are in

equilibrium at 1 atm

264

(ch 10) molar enthalpy of fusion: amount of energy as heat required to melt one mole of

solid at the soldi's melting pint

265

(ch 10) sublimation: change of state from a solid directly to a

gas

266

(ch 10) deposition: change of state from a gas directly to a

solid

267

(ch 10) phase diagram: graph of pressure versus temperature that shows the conditions under whicht he

phases of a substance exist

268

(ch 10) triple point: indicates the temeprature and pressure conditions at which the solid, liquid, and vapor of the substance can

coexist at equilibrium

269

(ch 10) critical point: indicates the critical

temperature and critical pressure

270

(ch 10) critical temperature: temperature above which the substance cannot exist in the

liquid state

271

(ch 10) critical pressure: lowest pressure at which the substance can exist as a liquid at the

critical temperature

272

(ch 11) kinetic moleculr teory of gases describes an

ideal gas

273

(ch 11) the behvior of most gases is nearly ideal except at very

high pressures and low temperatures

274

(ch 11) a barometer measures

atmospheric pressure

275

(ch 11) dalton's law of partial pressure states that in a mixture of unreacting gases, the total pressure equals the sum of the

partial pressures of each gas

276

(ch 11) boyle's law states the inverse relationship between the volume and pressure of a gas:

PV=k

277

(ch 11) charles law illustrates the direct relationship between a gas's ... and its ... in kelvins:

volume; temperature
V=kT

278

(ch 11) gay-lussac's law represents the direct relationshjip betrween a gas's ... and its ... in kelvins:

pressure; temperature
P=kT

279

(ch 11) the combined gas law combines boyle's, charles's, and gay-lussac's law into this epression:

PV/ T=k

280

(ch 11) gay-lussac's law of combining volumes states that the volumes of recting gases and their products at the same temperature and pressure can be expressed as

ratios of whole numbers

281

(ch 11) avogadro's law states that equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain

equal numbers of molecules

282

(ch 11) the volume occupied by one mole of an ideal gas at STP is called the ..., which ...

standard molar volume; 22.414 L

283

(ch 11) charles's law, Boyle's law, and Avogadro's law can be bombined to create the ideal gas law:

PV=nRT

284

(ch 11) gases diffuse, or become morespread out, due to their

constant random molecular motion

285

(ch 11) graham's law of effusion states that the relative rates of effusion of gases at the same temperature and pressurea re inversely proportional to the

square roots of their molar masses

286

(ch 11) pressure is defined as the force per

unit area on a surface

287

(ch 11) newton: force that will increase the speed of a 1 kilogram mass by one meter per second each second that the

force is applied

288

(ch 11) millimeters of mercury: common unit of

pressure

289

(ch 11) atmosphere of pressure: exactly equivalent to

760 mm Hg

290

(ch 11) pascal: the pressure exerted by a force of one ... acting on an area of one

newton; square meter

291

(ch 11) partial pressure: pressure of each

gas in a mixture

292

(ch 11) absolute zero: teh temperature ..., given a value of ... in the kelvin scale

-273.15 C; zero

293

(ch 11) ideal gas constant: the constant ..., with balues of ... atm and .... kPa

R; .082 atm; 8.314 kPa

294

( ch 12) solutions are

homogenous mixtures

295

( ch 12) mixtures are classified as:

solutions
suspensions
colloids

296

( ch 12) the way mixtures are classified depends on the ... of the solute particles in the mixture

size

297

( ch 12) the dissolved substance is the

solute

298

( ch 12) solutions that have water as a solvent are

aqueous solutions

299

( ch 12) solutions can consist of solutes and solvents that are

solids, liquids, or gases

300

( ch 12) suspensions settle out upon

standing

301

( ch 12) colloids do not settle out, and they scatter

light that's shined through them

302

( ch 12) most ionic solutes and some molecular solutes form aqueous solutions that conduct an electric current:

electrolytes

303

( ch 12) nonelectrolytes are solutes that dissolve in water to form

solutions that do not conduct

304

( ch 12) a solute dissolves at a rate that depends on the ... of the solute, how vigorously the solution is.., and the ... of the solvent

surface area; mixed; temperature

305

( ch 12) the solubility of a substance indicates how much of that substance will dissolve in a specified amount of solvent under

certain conditions

306

( ch 12) the solubility of a substance depends on the

temeprature

307

( ch 12) the solubilityof gases in liquids increases with icreases in

pressure

308

( ch 12) the solubility of gases in liquids decreases wtih

increases in temperature

309

( ch 12) the overall energy absorbed as heat by the system when a specified amount osf solute dissolved during solution formation is caleld the

enthalpy of solution

310

( ch 12) two useful expressions of concentration are

molarity and molality

311

( ch 12) the molar concentration of a solution represents the ratio fo moles of solute to

liters of solutio

312

n( ch 12) the molal concentration of a solution represents the ratio fo moles of solute to

kilograms of solvent

313

( ch 12) soluble: capable of being

dissolved

314

( ch 12) solvent: dissolving

medium

315

( ch 12) solution equilibrium: physical state in which the opposing processes of ... and ... of a solute occur at equal rates

dissolution; crystallization

316

( ch 12) saturated solution: a solution that contains the maximum amount of

dissolved solute

317

( ch 12) unsaturated solution: solution that contains less solute than a

saturated solution under same conditions

318

( ch 12) supersaturated solution: contains more dissolved solute that a saturated solution contains under the

same conditions

319

( ch 12) hydration: solution process with water as the

solvent

320

( ch 12) immiscible: liquids that are nto

soluble in each other

321

( ch 12) miscible: liquids that dissolve freely in one another in any

proportion

322

( ch 12) henry's law: solubilityof a gas in al iquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of that gas on the

surface of the liquid

323

( ch 12) effervescence: rapid escape of a gas from a liquid in which it is

dissovled

324

( ch 12) solvated: solute particle that is surrounded by

solvent molecules

325

( ch 12) enthalpy of solution: the net amount of energy absorbed as heat by the solution when a specific amount of

solute dissolves in a solvent

326

( ch 12) concentration: measure fo the amount of solute in a given amount of

solvent or solution

327

In general, the atomic radii of the main-group elements... down a group

increase

328

In general, ionization energies of the main-group elements ... across each period.

increase

329

Among the main-group elements, ionization energies generally... down the groups;

decrease

330

Ionic radii: cationic radii ...across a period

decrease

331

anionic radii ....across each period

decrease

332

there is a gradual ...of ionic radii down a group

increase

333

electronegativities tend to ...across each period, although there are exceptions;

increase

334

electronegativities tend to either ...down a group or remain about the same

decrease