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Flashcards in Ch 11 Section 3 Deck (41):
1

joseph gay-lussac observed that 2 L of hydrogen can react with 1 L of oxygen to form 2 L of water vapor at

constant temperature and pressure

2

Lussac's reaction shows a simple and definite 2:1:2 relationship between the volumes of the

reactants and the product

3

two volumes of hydrogen react with 1 volume of oxygen to produce 2 volumes of

water vapor

4

the 2:1:2 relationship for this reaction applies to any

proportions for volume

5

gay-lussac also noticed simple and definite proportions by

volume in other reactions of gases

6

Gay-Lussac's law of combining volumes of gases states that at constant temperature and pressure, the volumes of gaseous reactnats and products can be expressed as

ratios of small whole numbers

7

law of combining volumes of gases as well as avogadro's insight provided a better understanding of how gases react and

combine with each other

8

in 1811, avogadro found a way to explain Gay-Lussac's simple ratios o combining volumes without violating Dalton's idea of

indivisible atoms

9

avogadro rejected dalton's idea that reactant elements are always in monatomic form when they

combine to form products

10

avogadro's law states that equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain

equal numbers of molecules

11

avogadro reasoned that molecules combining to form products could contain more than one

atom

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at the same temperature and pressure, the volume of any given gas varies directly with the number of

molecules

13

avogadro's law indicates that gas volume is directly proportional to the amount of

gas, at a given temp and pressure

14

V=

kn

15

avogadro's reasoning applies to the combining volumes for the reaction of hydrogen and oxygen to form

water vvapor

16

while dalton thought the formula of water was HO, avogadro's reasoning established that the formula must be

h2o

17

the coefficients in a chemical reaction involving gases indicate the relative numbers of ..., the relative numbers of ..., and the relative

molecules; moles; volumes

18

experiments eventually showed that all elements that are gases near room temp, except noble gases, normally exist as

diatomic molecules

19

according to avogadro's law, one mole of any gas will occupy the same volume as one mole of any other gas at the same

temperature and pressure, despite mass differences

20

the volume occupied by one mole of a gas at STP is known as the

standard molar volume of a gas and is 22.4 L

21

knowing the volume of a gas, you can use 1 mol/ 22.4 L as a conversion factor to find the

number of moles, and mass, of a given volume of a given gas at STP

22

you can use the molar volume of a gas to find the volume, at STP, of a known number of

moles or a known mass of a gas

23

for gaseous reactants or products, coefficients in chemical equations not only indicate molar amounts and mole ratios but also reveal

volume ratios, assuming conditions remain the same

24

the ideal gas law is the mathematical relationship among

pressure, volume, temperature, and the number of moles of a gas

25

ideal gas law: PV=

nRT

26

ideal gas law reduces to boyles's law, charles's law, gay-lussac's law, or avogadro's law when the appropriate variables are

held constant

27

the number of molecules or moles present will always affect at least one of the other

three quantities

28

the collision rate of molecules per unit area of container wall depends on the number of

molecules present

29

if the number of molecules is increased for a sample at constant volume and temperature, the

collision rate increases and so does pressure

30

according to avogadro's law, if pressure and temp were kept constant while number of molecules increased, the

volume would increase

31

an increase in volume keeps the pressure

constant at constant temperature

32

increasing volume keeps the collision rate per unit of wall area

constant

33

the constant R is known as the

ideal gas constant

34

the value of r depends on the units chosen for

pressure, volume, and temperature

35

measured values of P, V, T, and n for a gas at near-ideal conditions can be used to calculate

R

36

R is used in calculations when volume is in ... and temp is in

liters; kelvins

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ideal gas law can be applied to determine existing conditions of a gas sample when 3 of the 4 variables P,V, T, or n are

known

38

ideal gas law can also be used to calculate the

molar mass or density of a gas sample

39

for mm hg, r is

62.4

40

for atm, r is

.082

41

for J and kPa, R is

8.314