Flashcards in Ch 11 Section 3 Deck (41):

1

## joseph gay-lussac observed that 2 L of hydrogen can react with 1 L of oxygen to form 2 L of water vapor at

### constant temperature and pressure

2

## Lussac's reaction shows a simple and definite 2:1:2 relationship between the volumes of the

### reactants and the product

3

## two volumes of hydrogen react with 1 volume of oxygen to produce 2 volumes of

### water vapor

4

## the 2:1:2 relationship for this reaction applies to any

### proportions for volume

5

## gay-lussac also noticed simple and definite proportions by

### volume in other reactions of gases

6

## Gay-Lussac's law of combining volumes of gases states that at constant temperature and pressure, the volumes of gaseous reactnats and products can be expressed as

### ratios of small whole numbers

7

## law of combining volumes of gases as well as avogadro's insight provided a better understanding of how gases react and

### combine with each other

8

## in 1811, avogadro found a way to explain Gay-Lussac's simple ratios o combining volumes without violating Dalton's idea of

### indivisible atoms

9

## avogadro rejected dalton's idea that reactant elements are always in monatomic form when they

### combine to form products

10

## avogadro's law states that equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain

### equal numbers of molecules

11

## avogadro reasoned that molecules combining to form products could contain more than one

### atom

12

## at the same temperature and pressure, the volume of any given gas varies directly with the number of

### molecules

13

## avogadro's law indicates that gas volume is directly proportional to the amount of

### gas, at a given temp and pressure

14

## V=

### kn

15

## avogadro's reasoning applies to the combining volumes for the reaction of hydrogen and oxygen to form

### water vvapor

16

## while dalton thought the formula of water was HO, avogadro's reasoning established that the formula must be

### h2o

17

## the coefficients in a chemical reaction involving gases indicate the relative numbers of ..., the relative numbers of ..., and the relative

### molecules; moles; volumes

18

## experiments eventually showed that all elements that are gases near room temp, except noble gases, normally exist as

### diatomic molecules

19

## according to avogadro's law, one mole of any gas will occupy the same volume as one mole of any other gas at the same

### temperature and pressure, despite mass differences

20

## the volume occupied by one mole of a gas at STP is known as the

### standard molar volume of a gas and is 22.4 L

21

## knowing the volume of a gas, you can use 1 mol/ 22.4 L as a conversion factor to find the

### number of moles, and mass, of a given volume of a given gas at STP

22

## you can use the molar volume of a gas to find the volume, at STP, of a known number of

### moles or a known mass of a gas

23

## for gaseous reactants or products, coefficients in chemical equations not only indicate molar amounts and mole ratios but also reveal

### volume ratios, assuming conditions remain the same

24

## the ideal gas law is the mathematical relationship among

### pressure, volume, temperature, and the number of moles of a gas

25

## ideal gas law: PV=

### nRT

26

## ideal gas law reduces to boyles's law, charles's law, gay-lussac's law, or avogadro's law when the appropriate variables are

### held constant

27

## the number of molecules or moles present will always affect at least one of the other

### three quantities

28

## the collision rate of molecules per unit area of container wall depends on the number of

### molecules present

29

## if the number of molecules is increased for a sample at constant volume and temperature, the

### collision rate increases and so does pressure

30

## according to avogadro's law, if pressure and temp were kept constant while number of molecules increased, the

### volume would increase

31

## an increase in volume keeps the pressure

### constant at constant temperature

32

## increasing volume keeps the collision rate per unit of wall area

### constant

33

## the constant R is known as the

### ideal gas constant

34

## the value of r depends on the units chosen for

### pressure, volume, and temperature

35

## measured values of P, V, T, and n for a gas at near-ideal conditions can be used to calculate

### R

36

## R is used in calculations when volume is in ... and temp is in

### liters; kelvins

37

## ideal gas law can be applied to determine existing conditions of a gas sample when 3 of the 4 variables P,V, T, or n are

### known

38

## ideal gas law can also be used to calculate the

### molar mass or density of a gas sample

39

## for mm hg, r is

### 62.4

40

## for atm, r is

### .082

41