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1

Nanomaterials measure between 1 and

100 nanometers

2

Nanos is the Greek word for a

Small person

3

A nanometer is 1...of a meter

Billionth

4

One of the main appeals of nano materials is that they have

Different properties than everyday materials

5

Nano materials do not melt at the same temperature as

Everyday materials and do not conduct electricity like everyday materials

6

The different properties in nano materials is due to an increase in their

Surface area and their unusual shapes

7

Their surface area and unusual shapes can affect how

Durable they are, how they conduct electricity and heat, and how they absorb light

8

A nanotube is essentially a sheet of pure

Carbon graphite rolled into a cylinder

9

In an individual graphite layer called graphene carbon atoms form a series of

Six sided hexagons next to one another

10

When a graphene sheet is rolled up to form a tube the tubes wall is made of

Carbon hexagon

11

Hexagons can be parallel to the

Axis of the tube or form a helix that winds along the tube

12

A nanotubes diameter and how the hexagons are arranged on the all affect the way nanotubes conduct

Electricity

13

A nanotubes diameter and how the hexagons are arranged on the wall affect the way nanotubes conduct

Electricity

14

Nanotubes diameter and hexagon arrangement make them useful for making electronic components

Much smaller than those currently used

15

The nanotubes are lighter and stronger than steel and this they could make

Good body armor

16

Carbon nanotubes in the shape of long yarn-like fibers could outperform even the strongest

Bullet-proof materials on the market

17

Nano wires are solid rods of silicon or other

Materials that are only a few nano materials wide

18

A nanowires length is much longer than it's worth and it behaves like a

Wire in which electrons can move this conducting an electric current

19

Nanowires have shown potential application in

Solar cells

20

Solar cells harvest the Suns energy and turn it into

Electricity more efficiently than present solar cells

21

Nanowires have been used to build sensors that can detect

Disease-triggering molecules in the body or harmful chemicals in the air

22

A "buckyball" (fullerene) is a hollow soccer ball shaped molecule made of

69 Carbon atoms, each Carbon atom bonded to three adjacent Carbon atoms

23

Other existing buckyballs contain either

70/80 Carbon atoms

24

Several academic laboratories and companies are developing modified buckyballs for

Therapeutic uses

25

Luna innovations is testing buckyball based therapeutics to block

Inflammation, swelling, and pain associated with medical conditions

26

This technology is based upon the buckyballs' unique ability to trap harmful

Free radicals

27

Free radicals increase

Inflammation and can damage or kill cells

28

Free radicals are molecules that have an uneven number of

Electrons

29

Some free radicals form as part of an immune response targeting

Viruses and bacteria

30

Environmental factors such as pollution radiation cigarette smoke and herbicides may create

Free radicals too

31

The unpaired electron makes free radicals highly

Reactive

32

Nanotechnology is a research area in hitch scientists use atoms and molecules to build

Materials that can be used in many areas such as health care clean energy sources and shrinking electronics

33

To become stable, free radicals seek to pair that lone electron by taking an

Electron from anther molecule

34

When this molecule loses its electron it becomes a

Free radical itself

35

This chain reaction of free radicals ultimately damages the cell when the body cannot cope with

Too many free radicals

36

Buckyballs can neutralize a dangerous free radical when it's unpaired electron is transferred to

The buckyball forming a bond

37

Buckyballs block allergic

Response

38

Tejal desais group has designed a microchip with nanometer sized channels that will be able to steadily release a

Drug over time

39

By using pores as small as 7 nanometers in diameter the scientists over bed constant

Release for tiny molecules of glucose

40

The steady release of the glucose molecules over time is a result of the tiny size of the

Nanochannels, which limits how fast the molecule can be released

41

A good oral drug delivery vehicle has to survive extreme

Acidity and digestive enzymes as well a mechanical agitation in the stomach

42

Good oral delivery must also transfer the drug across a

Mucous layer which is meant to keep out foreign invaders

43

Deals team has created a flat delivery decide which is able to dock on the intestinal wall and

Release drug through it allowing most of the drug to go to the targeted area

44

Buckyballs have high potential for

Drug delivery

45

Using buckyballs for drug delivery involves attaching drug molecules to the Carbon atoms on the

Surface of the buckyball

46

Other molecules are added to the buckyballs to make them

Water soluble

47

Making the buckyballs water soluble allows the medicines added buckyball to be

Absorbed by the bloodstream when swallowed or injected

48

The buckyball can then release the drug upon reaching a

Chemical trigger

49

A challenge in unit nanotechnology is creating better

Manufacturing methods

50

Creating large quantities of nanoscale materials is time-

Consuming and expensive

51

New technologies will have to be developed to safely and reliably

Snap atoms together

52

Standards and measurements will need to be created to ensure the

Quality of the resulting nano materials

53

Nanotechnology still holds many

Unknowns

54

Several programs are looking at the possible societal and

Ethical impacts of nanotechnology

55

Other programs are Testing the safety of exposing our environment and bodies to

Nanomaterials

56

The u.s. House of reps passed s bill that requires federal agencies participating in the national nanotechnology initiative to develop a

Plan for environmental and safety research

57

The national nanotechnology initiative is a program established in 2001 to coordinate nanotechnology

Research among various federal agencies

58

To build Nanomaterials researched can modify a

Starting material

59

With the top down approach a material is altered by

Mechanical or chemical means

60

An electron beam or light are usually used to create

Nanomaterials

61

The techniques are called electron beam

Lithography and photolithography

62

In electron beam lithography a focused beam of electrons forms the circuit patterns needed for

Depositing material on or removing material from a surface

63

Photolithography used light for the same purpose as

Electron beam lithography

64

Photolithography is limited in the size of the patterns it creates by the

Wavelength of visible light

65

Narrower features can be made by using ultraviolet light with

Shorter wavelength

66

Electron beam lithography produced patterns in the order of

20 nanometers but takes longer and is expensive

67

The bottom up approach starts with individual molecules or atoms and brings them together to form a

Product in which every atom is in a designated location

68

Often molecules are designed and created so that they can spontaneously self assemble when a chemical or

Physical trigger is applied

69

Weak interactions play an important role in

Bottom up manufacturing

70

These bonds can be made and broken much more easily than the

Covalent bonds that bind most atoms in molecules

71

Bottom up process hold great promise for the future because they lead to a wider variety of

Structures

72

The ultimate goal of building products with atomic precision will require a

Bottom up approach