Chapter 6 (pg 162 – 177) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 6 (pg 162 – 177) Deck (15):
1

Trait theories

these approaches look at the combination of biological or psychological attributes that might explain criminality

2

Somatype

an idea used in a system developed for categorizing people on the basis of their body build, associated with the work of William Sheldon

3

Sociobiology

the branch of science that views human behaviour as motivated by inborn biological urges and desires. The urge to survive and reproduce motivates human behaviour

4

Equipotentiality

the concept that individuals are equal at birth and thereafter are influenced by their environment

5

Instincts

the mechanism by which routine actions and behaviour are known automatically without being learned

6

Hypoglycaemia

a biochemical condition, in this case a deficiency of sugar, which influences antisocial behaviour and criminality

7

Androgens

male sex hormones, which have been linked to criminality

8

Testosterone

an androgen, or male hormone, which controls secondary sex characteristics and can alter behaviour

9

Premenstrual syndrome (PMS)

the biogenetic theory that several days prior to and during menstruation, females are beset by irritability and poor judgment as a result of hormonal changes, which places them at a greater risk for criminality

10

Neurophysiology

the study of brain activity that looks at neurological and physical abnormalities acquired during the fetal or perinatal stage, which are thought to control behaviour

11

Electroencephalograph (EEG)

a device that can control the electronic impulses given off by the brain, commonly called brain waves

12

Minimal brain dysfunction (MBD)

an abnormality in cerebral structure that causes maladaptive behaviour and is linked to antisocial acts and an imbalance in urge-control

13

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

a condition in which a child shows a developmentally inappropriate lack of attention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity

14

Arousal theory

the view that people with a high arousal level seek powerful stimuli to maintain an optimal level of arousal; often associated with violence, aggression, and sociopathy

15

r/K theory

an evolutionary theory of crime that holds that K-oriented people are more cooperative and sensitive to others; r-oriented people are more cunning and deceptive