Chapter 7 (pg 199-224) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 7 (pg 199-224) Deck (20):
1

Natural areas

zones or neighbourhoods that develop as a result of social forces operating in urban areas, and become natural areas for crime

2

Chicago school

pioneering research on the social ecology of the city and urban crime developed in the early 20th century by sociologists at the University of Chicago

3

Culture of poverty

the lower class culture, characterized by values and norms in conflict with conventional society

4

Underclass

a world cut off from society, its members lacking the education and skills needed to survive, which becomes a breeding ground for criminality

5

Social structure theory

an approach that looks at the effects of class stratification in society

6

Social disorganization theory

an approach that looks at neighbourhoods marked by culture conflict, lack of cohesiveness, transiency, and anomie

7

Strain theory

an approach that looks at the conflict caused when people cannot achieve their goals through legitimate means, and are denied access to adequate educational opportunities and social support

8

Cultural deviance theory

criminal behaviour is in conformity to lower-class subcultural values that develop in disorganized neighbourhoods due to strain and values in conflict with conventional social norms

9

Transitional neighbourhood

an area undergoing a shift in population and structure, usually from middle-class residential to lower-class mixed use

10

Cultural transmission

the cultural passing down of conduct norms from one generation to the next, which become stable and predictable

11

Value conflict

the clash of deviant values of teenage law-violating groups with middle-class norms, which demand obedience to the law

12

Social ecologists

those whose approach looks at community-level indicators of social disorganization, such as disorder, poverty, alienation, and fear of crime

13

Siege mentality

a consequence and symptom of community disorganization, where fear cause the belief that the outside world is an enemy out to destroy the neighbourhood

14

Concentration effect

the outcome when middle-class families flee inner-city poverty areas, taking with them institutional resources and support, which leads to the most disadvantaged people being consolidated in urban ghettos

15

Income inequality

the differences in personal income that create structural inequalities in society, which may be at the root of crime

16

Social injustice

the perception of unfairness, which leads to anger, especially where the poor and wealthy live in close proximity, and people can see how poorly off they are

17

At-risk

the susceptibility of people to criminal activity as a result of a “cultural of poverty” passed from one generation to the next; marked by apathy, cynicism, and mistrust of social institutions

18

Relative deprivation

the condition that exists when people of wealth and people of poverty live in close proximity to one another, affecting crime rates

19

General strain theory (GST)

a micro-level analysis of how individuals who feel stress and strain are more likely to commit crimes

20

Negative affective states

the anger, depression, disappointment, fear, and other adverse emotions that derive from strain