Chapter 6 (pg 177-191) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 6 (pg 177-191) Deck (20):
1

Social learning theory

the view that behaviour is modelled on observation of social interactions, direct observation of those who are close, or indirectly through the media. Interactions that are rewarded are copied, while those that are punished are avoided

2

Psychodynamic (psychoanalytic) theory

the branch of psychology that holds that the human personality is controlled by unconscious mental processes developed early in childhood

3

Repression

a process identified in psychodynamic theory, in which the unconscious mind contains feelings about sex and hostility; most people keep these feelings below the surface of consciousness

4

Neurosis

a syndrome in psychodynamic theory whereby people suffer when they experience feelings of mental anguish and are afraid they are losing control of their personalities

5

Psychosis

a syndrome in which people have lost total control and are dominated by their primitive id; their behaviour may be marked by bizarre episodes, hallucinations, and inappropriate responses to situations

6

Schizophrenia (and name 3 types)

a psychosis marked by bizarre behaviour, hallucinations, loss of thought control, and inappropriate emotional responses; types of schizophrenia include catatonic (impairment of motor activity), paranoid (delusions of persecution), and hebephrenic (immature behaviour and giddiness)

7

Inferiority complex

a term used to describe the sense of inadequacy held by people who compensate for their feelings of inferiority with a drive for superiority; controlling others may help reduce their sense of personal inadequacies

8

Identity crisis

a psychological state, identified by Erikson, in which youths face inner turmoil and uncertainty about life roles

9

Latent delinquency

the idea that a mental predisposition prepares youths psychologically for antisocial acts

10

Behaviour theory

the approach that human actions are developed through a variety of learning experiences over the course of a lifetime

11

Behaviour modelling

in modern society, the process of learning aggressive acts from three principal sources: family members, environmental experiences, and the mass media

12

Cognitive school (perspective)

a theory that studies our perceptions of reality and of the mental processes required to understand the world we live in

13

Personality

the reasonably stable patterns of behaviour, thoughts, and emotions that distinguish one person from another; used to explain how psychological conflict or underdevelopment might result in neurotic or psychotic behaviour patterns

14

Psychopathy

a mental disorder, especially when manifested as antisocial behaviour. The term is often used interchangeably with sociopathy and antisocial personality disorder

15

Sociopathy

a mental disorder characterized by lack of warmth and affection, inappropriate responses, and an inability to learn from experience. The term is often used interchangeably with psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder

16

Antisocial personality

synonymous with psychopathy, the antisocial personality is characterized by a lack of normal responses to life situations, the inability to learn from punishment, and violent reactions to non-threatening events

17

According to psychodynamic theory, the human mind performs three separate functions. What are they?

1) Conscious (everyday thoughts)
2) Preconscious (memories)
3) Unconscious (biological urges)

18

According to psychodynamic theory, the human personality contains a three-part structure. What are they?

Id, Ego, Superego

19

What are the stages in human development for seeking pleasure throughout the body?

Oral -> Anal -> Phallic -> Latency -> Genital

20

Where would criminals and non-criminals fall on the moral reasoning scale?

Crimes in stage 1-2, while non-criminals in stages 5-6