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Flashcards in Chapter 5 Deck (33):
1

Choice theory

the view that delinquent behaviour is a rational choice made by a motivated offender who perceives the chances of gain as outweighing any perceived punishment or loss

2

Classical criminology

the theory that people have free will, choose to commit crime for reasons of greed or need, and can be controlled only by the fear of criminal sanctions

3

Utilitarianism

a view that believes punishment of crime should be balanced and fair, and that even criminal behaviour is purposeful and reasonable

4

Crime displacement

an effect of crime prevention efforts, in which efforts to control crime in one area shift illegal activities to another area

5

Offence-specific crime

an illegal act committed by offenders reacting selectively to characteristics of particular offences, assessing opportunity and guardianship; relevant to routine activities theory

6

Offender-specific crime

an illegal act committed by offenders who do not usually engage in random acts of antisocial behaviour, but who evaluate their skills at accomplishing the crime

7

Rational choice theory

the view that crime is a function of a decision-making process, in which the potential offender weighs the potential costs and benefits of an illegal act

8

Routine activities theory

the view that crime is a normal function of routine activities of modern living; offences occur when a suitable target is not protected by capable guardians

9

Macro perspective

a large-scale view that takes into account social and economic reasons to explain how and why things happen; relevant to Marxism and functionalism

10

Micro perspective

a small-scale view of events, looking at interaction to explain how and why things happen; relevant to interactionist studies of deviance and development

11

Capable guardians

in routine activities theory, the presence of police, homeowners, neighbours, and others, which can have a deterrent effect on crime

12

Motivated criminals

the potential offenders in a population. According to rational choice theory, crime rates will vary according to the number of motivated offenders

13

Instrumental crime

illegal activity, such as the sale of narcotics, committed for the purpose of obtaining desired goods that are unable to be attained through conventional means

14

Seductions of crime

according to Katz, the visceral and emotional appeal that the situation of crime has for those who engage in illegal acts

15

Situational crime prevention

a method to eliminate or reduce particular crimes in narrow settings, such as increasing lighting and installing security alarms

16

Defensible space

the principle that crime prevention can be achieved through modifying the physical environment to reduce the opportunity individuals have to commit crime

17

Target reduction strategies

methods for reducing crime through the use of locks, bars, alarms, and other devices; based on the routine activities theory and its analysis of potential risk factors

18

Extinction

the phenomenon in which a crime prevention effort has an immediate impact that dissipates as criminals adjust to new conditions

19

Diffusion of benefits

an effect that occurs when an effort to control one type of crime has the unexpected benefit of reducing the incidence of another type of crime

20

Discouragement

the effect when efforts made to eliminate one type of crime also control other types of crime by limiting access to desirable targets and thereby reducing the value of the criminal activity

21

General deterrence

a crime control policy that depends on the fear of criminal penalties, such as long prison sentences for violent crimes, aimed at convincing the potential law violator that the pains associated with crime outweigh its benefits

22

Crackdown

the concentration of police resources on a particular problem area, such as street-level drug dealing, to eradicate or displace criminal activity

23

Brutalization effect

the outcome of capital punishment having created an atmosphere of brutality, which reinforces the view that violence is an appropriate response to provocation

24

Conflict-linked crime or violence

an expressive crime or an act of expressive violence involving people who know each other and who may be under the influence of drugs

25

Perceptual deterrence

the view that the perceived risk of being caught or the threat of severe punishments can deter active criminal offenders

26

Informal sanctions

the disapproval of parents, peers, and neighbours directed toward an offender, which may have a greater crime-reducing impact than the fear of formal legal punishments

27

Specific deterrence

a crime control policy suggesting that punishment be severe; that individuals can be prevented from committing a crime if cost outweighs benefit; see utilitarianism

28

Reintegrative shaming

a method of correction that encourages offenders to confront their misdeeds, experience shame, and then be reincluded in society

29

Stigmatization

an enduring label that taints a person’s identity and changes him or her in the eyes of others

30

Degradation

shaming occurs when the offender is branded as evil and cast out of society through a ritual exclusion, such as a school disciplinary hearing or a criminal court trial

31

Selective incapacitation

the policy of creating enhanced prison sentences for the relatively small group of dangerous chronic offenders

32

Just desert

the philosophy of justice that asserts that those who violate the rights of others deserve to be punished, with severity commensurate with the seriousness of the crime

33

Blameworthy

the amount of culpability or guilt a person maintains for participating in a particular criminal offence