3rd -Chapter 4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 3rd -Chapter 4 Deck (22):
1

Victimology

the study of the victim’s role in criminal transactions

2

Cycle of violence

the phenomenon of child victims of abuse becoming adult criminals due to their early abusive experiences

3

Acquaintance-related crime

a crime committed by an offender who has had a prior relationship with the victim; date rape is such a crime

4

Stranger-related crime

a crime committed by an offender who has had no prior relationship with the victim, such as most incidents of carjacking

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Victimologist

a researcher who studies the role of victims in the crime process

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Victim precipitation

the view that a victim’s behaviour or characteristics, such as verbal abuse, or openly displaying wealth, can act as the spark that ignites the subsequent offence

7

Active precipitation

the aggressive behaviour of victims, which provokes a reaction

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Passive precipitation

the view that personal and social characteristics of victims make them attractive targets for predatory criminals

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Aggravating factor

a circumstance that makes a crime more serious; for example, racism makes an assault more serious, resulting in a harsher sentence as a hate crime

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Mitigating factor

a circumstance that makes a crime less serious; for example, abused people react more when threatened, which may serve as a defence or may lead to a lighter sentence

11

Equivalent group hypothesis

the view that victims and criminals share similar characteristics, and their lifestyle exposes them to increased levels of victimization risk

12

Lifestyle theory

the view that the lifestyle of the victim is a factor in the likelihood of a crime being committed, such as the number of times the victim goes out or the people the victim associates with

13

Proximity hypothesis

the view that people become crime victims because they live or work in areas with large criminal populations

14

Deviant place hypothesis

the theory that suggests there are natural areas for crime, which are poor, densely populated, highly transient neighbourhoods in which commercial and residential property exist side by side

15

Routine activities theory

the view that crime is a normal function of the routine activities of modern living: a suitable, unprotected target will be identified as a target by motivated offenders

16

Predatory crime

a violent, opportunistic crime, not usually familiar-related, such as stealing brand-name clothing from strangers

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Suitable target

according to routine activities theory, a target for crime that is relatively valuable, easily transportable, and not capably guarded

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Motivated offenders

the potential offenders in a population who exploit opportunities to commit crime

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Victim compensation

financial restitution to the victim of crime, usually provided by provinces and territories and funded by a surcharge levied in criminal cases

20

Crisis intervention

a form of program provided to victims of crime, many of whom are feeling isolated, vulnerable, and in need of immediate services such as counselling

21

Target hardening

making one’s home and business crime-proof through the installation of locks, bars, alarms, and other devices

22

Displacement

the effect when heavy law enforcement in one area drives crime to another, less well-enforced area, thus making this policing strategy ineffective overall