Chapter 12 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 12 Deck (20):
1

Enterprise crimes

illegal acts of opportunity that involve breaking regulatory rules but not personal victimization for the purpose of financial gain

2

White-collar crime

illegal acts that capitalize on a person’s status in the marketplace, including embezzlement, fraud, market manipulation, restraint of trade, and false advertising

3

Green criminology

the study of crimes against environment, usually for profit

4

Cybercrime

illegal acts that use computer technology both for illicit gain, such as fraud, and for moral crimes, such as child pornography and stalking

5

Organized crime

illegal acts committed by a gang, such as drug trafficking

6

Occupational crime

crime committed by employees for personal gain using the structural advantage provided by their employment

7

Chiselling

cheating an organization or its customers

8

Churning

a white-collar crime in which a stockbroker makes repeated trades to fraudulently increase his or her commissions

9

Insider trading

illegal buying of stock in a company on the basis of information provided by someone in the company, such as an employee, attorney, or accountant of the firm

10

Arbitrage

the practice of buying large blocks of stock in companies that are believed to be the target of corporate buyouts or takeovers

11

Pilferage

theft by employees through stealth or deception

12

Corporate crime

a legal violation by a corporate entity, such as price-fixing, restraint of trade, hazardous waste dumping, unfair advertising, or monopolistic practices

13

Price-fixing

a form of corporate crime, where companies conspire together to artificially inflate the price of goods

14

Compliance

a white-collar enforcement strategy that encourages law-abiding behaviour through both the threat of economic sanctions and the promise of rewards for conformity

15

Deterrence

the act of preventing crime before it occurs by means of the threat of criminal sanctions; the perception that the pain of punishment outweighs the criminal gain or profit

16

Alien conspiracy theory

the view that organized crime was imported from Europe, and that crime cartels restrict their membership to people of their own ethnic background

17

Enterprise Crimes is made up of 3 parts, what are they?

White-collar crime, cyber-crime, and organized crime

18

What are the 7 types of white collar crimes?

Swindling, chiselling, individual exploitation of institutional position, influence peddling and bribery, embezzlement and employee fraud, client frauds, and corporate crime

19

What are the two causes of white collar crime?

Corporate Culture (theory) and self-control view

20

What are two white-collar control strategies?

Compliance and deterrence