Flashcards in Chapter 7 Deck (55):
Reasons for high rate of recidivism
1. The basic nature of the offenders
2. Influence of more hardened criminals
3. The stigma of being an ex convict
Approach to crime which attempts to resocialize criminals.
Keeping criminals in prison
A type of punishment meant to make criminals pay compensation for their acts.
Approach which uses the threat of punishment to discourage criminal behavior.
Approaches of the criminal justice system
Criminal justice system
Made up of the institutions and processes responsible for enforcing criminal statues.
Police, courts, and correctional system.
Acts in collation of statue of law.
Deviant behavior that is prohibited by law and punishable by the government
White collar crime
Any crime committed by respectable high-status people in the course of their occupation.
Reduces the seriousness of crimes directed at members of lower social classes.
Undesirable characteristic or label used by others to deny the deviant full social acceptance.
Refers to deviance as a lifestyle
Refers to first time offenses. When person only participates in isolated incidents of deviance.
The return to criminal behavior
Explains why deviance is relative-sometimes two people braking the norm but only one is labeled deviant. I.e. Girl and guy having baby but girls only one who's deviant
Social condition where norms are weak, conflicting, or absent. Without shared norms people are unsure of how to act.
Rewards and punishments designed to encourage desired behavior
A person who has violated one or more of society's most highly valued norms.
Conformity to norms, but over conformity. I.e. Anorexia
involves behavior that fails to meet social norms i.e. Obesity
Refers to behavior that departs from social or group norms
Two types of crime
Felony and misdemeanor
Punishable for one or more years in prison
Punishable for one or less years in prison
Four steps to justice system
1. Apprehend the suspect offenders - police
2. Determine guilt or innocence - courts
3. Decide punishment - court
4. Keep guilty separated from citizens - corrections
3 major elements of criminal justice system
3. Correctional system
Determine who is warned, who is pursued, who is arrested
Factors determining who's arrested
1. Seriousness of tbe offense
2. Wishes of the victim
3. Attitude of suspect
4. Presence of bystanders (witnesses)
Determine who is guilty/innocent and assign punishment
Why don't most cases go to court?
Bc of plea bargaining
Accused person pleads guilty to a crime less serious than accused of. In return, the accused receives a lighter sentence.
"I'll tell you where I bought the weapon for immunity"
No contest: Latin for I don't wish to contend
1. Dependent doesnt admit or dispute charges
2. Technically not a guilty plea
3. Has the same immediate effects of a guilty plea
Let the facts tell the story
1. Retribution- a way for society and victim to "get even"
2. Deterrence- discouraging offenders from committing frames again; a warning to others
3. Rehabilitations- reforming criminals into law abiding citizens
4. Social protection- protecting society from criminals
Is all deviance crime? Vice versa?
All deviance is not crime but all crime is deviant
How is deviance defined?
Extent of disapproval:
-Number of people who condemn an act must be considerable (50%+)
Degree of societal outrage:
-tbe hostility or outrage set off by the act must be intense
-if most people dissaprove of and wish to punish an action, if almost certainly will be labeled deviant
Social functions of deviance
Positive and negative social function
Positive social function
Deviance can promote social unity
Example: a community mobilizes in support of an African-American family that has faced racial attacks
Negative social function
-disrupts social order/norms and causes conflict
-deviance makes life unpredictable
How can deviance help to identify problems?
When a particular norm is frequently violated it may signal that the norm doesn't make sense
(Civil rights movement)
Techniques as strategies used for punishing wrong-doing or rewarding appropriate behavior
Why is deviance considered the violation of a significant social norm?
Bc everyone at some point violates social norm
(Slow roll to stop sign, fun a red light)
Why is deviance hard tk indentify
Bc it varies from group to group, time to time, society to society
Marxian thought-conflict theory
The rich and powerful use tbe laws tk maintain their position
Deviance is a ck on part of society w negatives and positives
Negatives of deviance
Causes structural strain- when people can't reach goals that society admired the structure of society is strained; deviance becomes a way of life
Positives of deviance
Helps define tbe limits of proper behavior
A state In Which there are no rules for behavior of there are so many rules that people don't know what to follow
Does labeling cause deviant behavior?
Theory suggests that labeling is the only requirement needed for an act to be considered deviant. Deviance cannot be defined without some reference to social norms.
What is the result of labeling a person?
Assigning a person tbe label of deviant, delibquient, addict, or weird is a for of social penalty that will lead to rejection and/or exclusion
What are tbe 5 fallacies about crime
1. Tbe dramatic fallacy
2. The cops and courts fallacy
3. The "not me" fallacy
4. The innocent youth fallacy
5. Tbe ingenuity fallacy
-tv portrayal gives abighly inaccurate of crime, even murder
-crime is not "exciting" in real life as if is on tv
-tv shows are designed to keep people watching
The cops and courts fallacy
-the fallacy warns us against overrating the importance of the criminal justice system
-not all crime is reported
The "not me" fallacy
-tbe though by criminals that there are certain crimes they will not commit
(Honor among thieves)
-someone who is a shoplifter can't imagine themselves committing armed robbery
The innocent youth fallacy
-Tv's version of crime usually protrays victims and offenders as middle aged
-when a youngster is the criminal, they are protrated as being corrupted but older peolple/society
(They got caught up in it)