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Flashcards in Chapter 7 Deck (55):
1

Reasons for high rate of recidivism

1. The basic nature of the offenders
2. Influence of more hardened criminals
3. The stigma of being an ex convict

2

Rehabilitation

Approach to crime which attempts to resocialize criminals.

3

Incarceration

Keeping criminals in prison

4

Retribution

A type of punishment meant to make criminals pay compensation for their acts.

5

Deterrence

Approach which uses the threat of punishment to discourage criminal behavior.

6

Approaches of the criminal justice system

1. Deterrence
2. Retribution
3. Incarceration
4. Rehabilitation

7

Criminal justice system

Made up of the institutions and processes responsible for enforcing criminal statues.
Police, courts, and correctional system.

8

Crime

Acts in collation of statue of law.
Deviant behavior that is prohibited by law and punishable by the government

9

White collar crime

Any crime committed by respectable high-status people in the course of their occupation.

10

Victim discounting

Reduces the seriousness of crimes directed at members of lower social classes.

11

Stigma

Undesirable characteristic or label used by others to deny the deviant full social acceptance.

12

Secondary defiance

Refers to deviance as a lifestyle

13

Primary defiance

Refers to first time offenses. When person only participates in isolated incidents of deviance.

14

Recidivism

The return to criminal behavior

15

Labeling theory

Explains why deviance is relative-sometimes two people braking the norm but only one is labeled deviant. I.e. Girl and guy having baby but girls only one who's deviant

16

Anomie

Social condition where norms are weak, conflicting, or absent. Without shared norms people are unsure of how to act.

17

Social sanctions

Rewards and punishments designed to encourage desired behavior

18

Deviant

A person who has violated one or more of society's most highly valued norms.

19

Positive deviance

Conformity to norms, but over conformity. I.e. Anorexia

20

Negative deviance

involves behavior that fails to meet social norms i.e. Obesity

21

Deviance

Refers to behavior that departs from social or group norms

22

Two types of crime

Felony and misdemeanor

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Felony

Rape
Murder
Aggravated assault/battery
Burglary
Punishable for one or more years in prison

24

Misdemeanor

Public intoxication
Disorderly conduct
Vandalism
Trespassing
Prostitution
Punishable for one or less years in prison

25

Four steps to justice system

1. Apprehend the suspect offenders - police
2. Determine guilt or innocence - courts
3. Decide punishment - court
4. Keep guilty separated from citizens - corrections

26

3 major elements of criminal justice system

1. Police
2. Courts
3. Correctional system

27

Police

Determine who is warned, who is pursued, who is arrested

28

Factors determining who's arrested

1. Seriousness of tbe offense
2. Wishes of the victim
3. Attitude of suspect
4. Presence of bystanders (witnesses)

29

Courts

Determine who is guilty/innocent and assign punishment

30

Why don't most cases go to court?

Bc of plea bargaining

31

Plea bargaining

Accused person pleads guilty to a crime less serious than accused of. In return, the accused receives a lighter sentence.
"I'll tell you where I bought the weapon for immunity"

32

Nolo contendre

No contest: Latin for I don't wish to contend
1. Dependent doesnt admit or dispute charges
2. Technically not a guilty plea
3. Has the same immediate effects of a guilty plea
Let the facts tell the story

33

Correctional system

Functions:
1. Retribution- a way for society and victim to "get even"
2. Deterrence- discouraging offenders from committing frames again; a warning to others
3. Rehabilitations- reforming criminals into law abiding citizens
4. Social protection- protecting society from criminals

34

Is all deviance crime? Vice versa?

All deviance is not crime but all crime is deviant

35

How is deviance defined?

Extent of disapproval:
-Number of people who condemn an act must be considerable (50%+)
Degree of societal outrage:
-tbe hostility or outrage set off by the act must be intense
-if most people dissaprove of and wish to punish an action, if almost certainly will be labeled deviant

36

Social functions of deviance

Positive and negative social function

37

Positive social function

Deviance can promote social unity
Example: a community mobilizes in support of an African-American family that has faced racial attacks

38

Negative social function

-disrupts social order/norms and causes conflict
-deviance makes life unpredictable

39

How can deviance help to identify problems?

When a particular norm is frequently violated it may signal that the norm doesn't make sense
(Civil rights movement)

40

Social controls

Techniques as strategies used for punishing wrong-doing or rewarding appropriate behavior

41

Why is deviance considered the violation of a significant social norm?

Bc everyone at some point violates social norm
(Slow roll to stop sign, fun a red light)

42

Why is deviance hard tk indentify

Bc it varies from group to group, time to time, society to society

43

Marxian thought-conflict theory

The rich and powerful use tbe laws tk maintain their position

44

Functionalist perspective

Deviance is a ck on part of society w negatives and positives

45

Negatives of deviance

Causes structural strain- when people can't reach goals that society admired the structure of society is strained; deviance becomes a way of life

46

Positives of deviance

Helps define tbe limits of proper behavior

47

Anomie

A state In Which there are no rules for behavior of there are so many rules that people don't know what to follow

48

Does labeling cause deviant behavior?

Theory suggests that labeling is the only requirement needed for an act to be considered deviant. Deviance cannot be defined without some reference to social norms.

49

What is the result of labeling a person?

Assigning a person tbe label of deviant, delibquient, addict, or weird is a for of social penalty that will lead to rejection and/or exclusion

50

What are tbe 5 fallacies about crime

1. Tbe dramatic fallacy
2. The cops and courts fallacy
3. The "not me" fallacy
4. The innocent youth fallacy
5. Tbe ingenuity fallacy

51

Dramatic fallacy

-tv portrayal gives abighly inaccurate of crime, even murder
-crime is not "exciting" in real life as if is on tv
-tv shows are designed to keep people watching

52

The cops and courts fallacy

-the fallacy warns us against overrating the importance of the criminal justice system
-not all crime is reported

53

The "not me" fallacy

-tbe though by criminals that there are certain crimes they will not commit
(Honor among thieves)
-someone who is a shoplifter can't imagine themselves committing armed robbery

54

The innocent youth fallacy

-Tv's version of crime usually protrays victims and offenders as middle aged
-when a youngster is the criminal, they are protrated as being corrupted but older peolple/society
(They got caught up in it)

55

Ingenuity fallacy

-exaggerated the criminals cleverness
-the vast majority of time is not well planned or well thought out......it just happens
-most criminals take a casual approach to crime
-most crime happens quickly
-most offenders are not master minds