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Flashcards in Exam-packet and book Deck (84):

Bilateral descent

The reckoning of descent through both the mothers and fathers families



A rule that requires a person to marry from within his or her own group- tribe, nationality, religion, race, community, or other social group


Equalitarian authority

A patter in which power within the family is vested equally in males and females



A rule that requires a person to marry someone from outside his or her own group


Extended family

A household consisting of married couples from different generations, their children, and other relatives; the core family consists of blood relatives, with spouses being rubicon ally marginal and peripheral



A group of people who are united by ties of marriage, ancestry, or adoption and are recognized by community members as constituting a single household and having the responsibility for reading children


Family of orientation

A nuclear family consisting o f oneself and ones father, mother, and siblings


Family of procreation

A nuclear family consisting of oneself and ones spouse and ones children


Group marriage

Marriage consisting of two or more wife's ad two or more husbands



Collective settlements in Israel where individuals work for, and children are raised by, the community as a whole



A socially recognized union between two or more individuals that thou ally involves sexual and economic rights and duties



A pattern in which power within the family is vested into females


Matrilineal descent

The reckoning of descent through the mothers family only


Matrilocal residence

An arrangement in which the married couple up marriage sets up housekeeping with or near the wife's family



Marriage consisting of one husband and one wife


Neolocal residence

An arrangement in which the married couple upon marriage were up a new residence


Nuclear family

A household consisting spouses snd their childrenD blood relatives are functionally marginal and peripheral



A pattern in which power within the family is vested in males


Patrilineal descent

The reckoning of descent through the fathers family only


Patrilocal residence

An arrangement where upon marriage the married couple sets up housekeeping with or near the husbands family



Marriage consisting of one husband and two or more wives


Two career marriage

A marriage in which both partners pursue careers Ourside the home


Two location (commuter) marriage

A marriage in which husband and wife spend some of the time living in doers he residences in order to pursue their respective careers



Marriage consisting of two or more husbands and one wife


Functionalist perspective on family

Looks at the consequences of families of the survival of society. The institution of family serves 5 functions


What five functions does a family serve

1. Regulation in sexual behavior, in part through the incest taboo
2. Reproduction of the next generation
3. Socialization
4. Care and protection of helpless infants
5. Social placement of individuals into natural, ethnic, racial, religious, class, and community categories.


Conflict perspective

Interpersonal conflict and violence are ordinary family life.
Compete for scarce resources and rewards.
Members negotiate certain rights and responsibilities.
Conflict is lessened in intensity but not frequency bc they continue to live w each other after a fight


Symbolic interactionist perspective

Look at face to face interactions: language, gestures, dress that create shared meanings
Relationships rights and responsibilities constantly changing and redefined
(Couple that lived together then got married... How change?) View the family as a site of social reproduction where meanings are negotiated and maintained by family members


What is the family?

Look at 3 perspectives


Incest Taboo

A norm forbidding marriage between close relatives



The tendency to marry someone similar to oneself


Socioemotional Maintenance

Provision of acceptance and support


Marriage rate

The number of marriages per year for every one thousand members of a population


Divorce rate

The number of divorces per year for every one thousand members of the population



Youths from the ages of twelve to seventeen



A marriage like living arrangement without the legal obligations and responsibilities of formal marriage


Boomerang kids

Adult children who return to the home of origin or who continue to live with parents


How did family structures develop?

The development of agriculture and industry shaped family structures. In early societies hunting and gathering were family activities.


How does the family socialize children?

The family acts as role models to infants when they learn to talk and behave


What is the reproduction function of the family?

The family produces new members to society


How does the family regulate sexual activity?

The family teaches abstinence and safe sex


How does the family transmit social status?

Families with more money tend to pass on to the kids that getting a degree is important. Rather than families with less money that the kids feel they don't need to work as hard to get a degree.


What is the economic function of the family?

The modern American family is a unit of consumption. Adult members work and out their money together to buy what is needed. The family provides what is needed.


How does conflict theory explain gender relationships in the family?

According to conflict theorists, males are dominant and in control; females have been expected to be helpers. Men work, women stay home and tend to the children and house


How do the ideas of feminist writers fit with conflict theory?

Feminist writers believe that family structure is the reason why there's inequality between men and women


How does the family help develop a person's self concept?

Interactions with adults help children gain their personality and social characteristics


What are the causes of divorce?

The age of people when they marry.
How many years the partners have been married.
The nature and quality of the relationship.


What does the future for marriage look like?

There's a chance that the decline of the divorce rate will continue


Is abuse always directed against women?

No men get abused and are in abusive relationships but they are frequently overlooked because families tend to be more dominate


Is abuse always physical?

No it can also be verbal and psychological abuse. Feelings of self hate and worthlessness can be as damaging as physical wounds.


What is the most common form of family violence?

Sibling violence. This happens because of rivalry, jealousy, disagreements over personal possessions, and incest.


What major problems face blended families?

Money difficulties: males have to pay child support for kids of a previous marriage and sometimes the stepmom has to step in and help resulting in feelings of unfairness because that woman is spending money on a child that isn't hers.
Step children's antagonism: stepchildren might try to ruin the marriage because they want their mom and dad to get back together
Unclear roles: step parents aren't sure if they should step in as a parent because they aren't the real father or mother


Why do women head the vast majority of single-parent households?

Women get custody of the child after a divorce usually. Well educated women are starting to adopt and raise that child because financially they can do it


Jack is a successful lawyer married to Jill, successful business executive. Jill's company transfers her from New York to San Francisco. Jack decided to keep his job and the family house in New York, while Jill rents a smal apartment near her job in San Francisco. This is an example of:

Commuter marriage


Which of the following is s true statement about the consequences of divorce?

About 25% of people remarry within a year


Which of the following couples Is most likely to get a divorce?

Ken and Barbie live in nyc and, though both have jobs, Barbie does the housework


Which factor has not contributed to the apparent rise in rates of divorce in the U.S.

Shifts to values emphasizing self-sacrifice and commitment


Which is the best method for measuring the divorce rate

Carrying out a longitudinal study by following a sample of people throughout their adult lifetimes


Which is not offered as an explanation as to why 1.8 million wives are beaten by their husbands each year?

Men are physically stronger than women


The use within the American family

All of the above


In comparing working class and business class families over the past 50 years, Caplow and Chadwick found

A partial convergence in family patterns between the two social classes


When compared with families in the or professional class, working class families

Emphasize initiative, creativity, and self-discipline in rearing children


According to Eleanor Maccoby, the single parent family

May fail to socialize children properly


The modern nuclear family is characterized by which of the following

Economic gain of individuals prevail over kin obligations


One disadvantage of romantic love as a basis for marriage is

Romantic love thrives on mystery and does not prepare a couple for the businesslike nature of an enduring relationship


Mary's parents encourage her to attend a small, church related liberal arts college because they hope she will Mary a man of religious faith. This illustrates the pattern of

subsurface controls


Which is not a common pattern in the selection of marriage partners

Marriage partners are freely chosen w no explicit or implicit social pressure


Which is a false statement about the relationship between industrialization and family patterns

Industrialization caused the appearance of the nuclear family


Which is a characteristic of families in hunting and gathering societies



Most social scientists would explain the origins of of different family firms in terms of

Differences in subsistence strategies


Which is not part of the definition of a family

A group which in which adult males have the most authority


Which is not one of the functions typically assigned to families

Production and distribution of essential goods and services


In comparing the wide variations in family organizations among the Nayer, the Dani, and Israelis living on kibbutzim, the important sociological conclusion is

A wide variety of family organizations can produce healthy, socialized children


What are the effects of single-parent families on children?

Children of single parent homes have higher rates of deviant behavior because the parent can't give that child enough attention or their time


Why are some married women now choosing not to have children?

Stigmas of a childless marriage have disappeared. It is no longer accepted that having children is the primary reason of marriage. Women decide that they want to pursue careers instead of raising a child


Are marriages happier with or without children?

It depends on the couple


What are drawbacks to the dual-employed family?

You don't have a lot of time because you have to juggle jobs household care and childcare.


Is there a positive to dual employment?

It is beneficial to women psychologically. Provides a wider set of social relationships.


Is cohabitation a workable alternative to marriage?

Cohabitation isn't a workable alternative because of the lack of commitment and abuse


Why are more Americans choosing to live alone?

Americans want to either remain unmarried, pursue their careers, or raise children from a former marriage


Will the current trend toward remaining single continue?

It is too early to predict because people aren't necessarily rejecting marriage. They want to express their freedom after they leave home.


Why are more adult children returning home?

Young adults are marrying later. They want to continue their studies and living at home is the most affordable. They also come home after college to be able to save up and find a place for their own


What are some consequences of the boomerang effect?

The adult children don't help pay to live there. The adult children invade the privacy of their parents.


What is the future of the American family?

The trend toward more working parents is likely to continue but the American family is ever changing