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Flashcards in Chapter 10 Notes Deck (26):
1

Sex

Biological based categories of female and male

2

Gender

Culturally constructed distinctions between femininity and masculinity

3

Gender stereotypes

Widely held belief about the behavior of males and females. Also include supposed abilities, personality traits, and expected social behavior.

4

Socialization

-Norms of behaviors expected of people in a particular society
-learning to behave in a manner that's appropriate
-traditionally includes effort to train children about gender roles

5

Gender roles

Expectations about what is appropriate behavior for each sex

6

Three key processes in socialization

1) operant conditioning
2) observational learning
3) self socialization

7

Operant conditioning person

B.F. Skinner

8

Operant conditioning

-Power of reward and punishment
-A form of learning in which responses come to be controlled by their conveniences (body language, facial expression, etc.)

9

Who uses operant conditioning?

Parents, teachers, peers, "important others"

10

Observational learning person

Abert bandura

11

Observational learning

A form of learning influenced by the observation of others behavior

12

Facts about observational learning

1. Children imitate both females and males
2. Most children imitate same sex models more than opposite sex models
3. Same sex peers may be even more influential than adults

13

Self socialization

Children are active agents in their own gender-role socialization

14

Three steps of S.S.

1. Children learn to classify themselves as male or female and to recognize their sex as permanent qualifies (around 5/6)
2. Self socialization motivated them to value characteristics or behave associated with their sex
3. Children strive to behave in with what is considered gender appropriate

15

Three conflictive abilities differences in males and females

1. On average females ten to have slightly better verbal skills than males (speak earlier, larger vocab, stronger semantically (a grammar))
2. During the high school years males show a slight advantage in math abilities
3. Starting in grade school years, males tend to score higher on tasks that require visual and working memory

16

3 social behavior and personality differences between genders

1. Studies show that males tend to be more physically aggressive than females
2. Females tend to be more verbally aggressive than females...a pattern that shows up early in childhood and continues into adulthood
3. There are gender differences in non-verbal communication....females are more sensitive to subtle non verbal cues (a smile or frown)

17

Study of gifted 7th and 8th grade students person

Benbow 1988

18

Benbow study 1988 study of gifted 7th and 8th graders

-top 500 math students in 7&8 grade (half male half female) took a math sub of the act
-boys out numbered girls 17:1 in froups scoring over 70"
-repeat for English (Becker, Cali, eagly, 1993)
-girls out numbered boys 15:1 in groups scoring over 700
-females tend to conform more

19

Girls outnumbered guys in good English tests

Becker, Cali, eagly 1993

20

Oliver and Hyde 1997

-females more trusting and empathetic
-males more sexually active
-makes more permissive and casual about premarital and extramarital sex

21

3 souces of gender role socialization

1. Families
2. Schools
3. Media

22

Families role in gender role socialization

(Don't treat them as differently as we think but)
-fathers engage more rough housing w boys
-encouraged to play w different types of toys
-household chores assigned by sex (girls inside boys outside)

23

What role to schools play in sources of gender role socialization people

Sadker-sadker 1990

24

Schools role in gender role socialization

-preschool and grade school teachers gotten reward good behavior
-teachers pay more attention to the behavior of males
-males tend to be scolded more for bad behavior than females

25

Medias role in gender role socialization

-tv shows depict males and females stereotypically
-females: submissive, passive, emotional, worried about trivial matters, sex objects
-men: interdependents, assertive, composed, work oriented, serious about matters

26

The shoulders theory of gender roles:

"We are born female or male... To become masculine or feminine takes years of complex development"