Chapter 7: Virtualization Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 7: Virtualization Deck (30):
1

On an x86 architecture without virtualization, the operating system runs at what privilege level?

Level 0

2

Which is the most powerful privilege level?

Level 0

3

Applications tend to run at what privilege level?

Level 3

4

When the software virtualization layer is introduced, the guest operating system is bumped to what privilege level?

Level 1

5

This shift from a more powerful privilege to a less powerful privilege level is called?

Ring Deprivileging

6

What software method was developed to address the challenges of Ring Deprivileging?

Binary Translation

7

Another software solution to Ring Deprivileging used by Xen is?

Paravirtualization

8

In Paravirtualized environments the guest operating system is?

"Virtual-Aware"

9

What technology allows significantly improved handling of multiple guest operating systems?

Nested Paging

10

Paging occurs when?

Processors translate linear addresses generated by operating systems and applications into physical addresses, which are used to access memory.

11

Intel nested paging technology is known as?

Extended Page Tables (EPT)

12

AMD nested paging technology is known as?

Rapid Virtualization Indexing (RVI)

13

When translation is performed, it is stored for future use in?

Translation Look-aside Buffer (TLB)

14

Intel VT-x allows both operating systems to run at what Privilege level?

Level 0.

15

Utilization of what does not tend to be the largest area of concern with respect to virtualization performance?

Processor

16

What two areas will be addressed in the next passes of virtualization hardware assists?

Hardware-based Page Tabled and I/O hardware assists.

17

To use virtualization hardware assists, you must have all of the following.

1. System BIOS enablement
2. Hardware technology (for example, technology within the processors for first-generation hardware assists)
3. Hypervisor support

18

Sharing resources in a virtualized environment requires a?

Software virtualization manager

19

The software virtualization layer is known as a?

Virtual machine manager

20

Proper virtualization should?

- Improve management of physical capacity
- Improve control of machines
- Simplify operation of virtual server pool
- Reduce risks to business continuity
- Dynamically scale resources to meet demand

21

Typical virtualization consolidation ratios are?

5:1 or 10:1

22

Virtualization consolidation reduces what?

Enterprise power usage

23

Virtualization streamlines what?

Security of data and system backups

24

Two types of hardware virtualization?

1. Intel Virtualization Technology (VT)
2. AMD-V

25

Both types of hardware virtualization provide what?

1. Allow guest O/S, VMM, and apps to run at standard privilege levels
2. Require no binary translation or paravirtualization
3. Increase reliability and security

26

A virtual machine manager is also called a?

Hypervisor

27

Each virtualized machine appears to have the host's what?

CPU, memory, and other resources to itself.

28

The hypervisor controls the host what?

Processor and resources, controlling guest O/S access to it

29

Privilege levels determine?

What hardware resources can be accessed by software

30

How many privilege levels are used outside of virtualization?

2