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Flashcards in Chapter 8 Deck (16):

Cognitive Apprenticeships

the process by which a learner gradually acquires expertise through interaction with an expert, either an adult or an older or more advanced peer


Constructivist Theories of Learning

Theories that state learners must individually discover and transform complex information, checking new information against old rules and revising rules when they no longer work


Cooperative Integrated reading and Composition (CIRC)

a comprehensive program for teaching reading and writing in the upper elementary grades; students work in four-member cooperative learning teams


Cooperative Learning

instructional approach in which students work in small mixed-ability groups


Cooperative scripting

a study method in which students work in pairs and take turns orally summarizing sections of material to be learned


discovery learning

a constructivist approach to teaching in which students are encouraged to discover principles for themselves


Group investigation

a cooperative learning model in which students work in small groups using cooperative inquiry, group discussion and cooperative planning and projects, afterward making presentations to the whole class on their finding



a cooperative learning model in which students are assigned to six-members teams to work on academic material that has been broken down into sections for each member


Learning Together

a cooperative learning model in which students in four- or five-member heterogenous groups work together on assignments


means-end analysis

a problem-solving technique that encourages identifying the goal (ends) to be attained, the current situation, and what needs to be done (means) to reduce the difference between the two conditions


mediated learning

assisted learning; an approach in which the teacher guides instruction by means of scaffolding to help students master and internalize the skills that permit higher cognitive functioning


Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS)

a structured cooperative learning method in which students work in pairs taking turns as teacher and learner, using specific metacognitive strategies.


Problem Solving

the application of knowledge and skills to achieve certain goals


Recipricol Teaching

a small-group teaching method based on principles of question generation; through instruction and modeling, teachers foster metacognitive skills primarily to improve the reading performance of students who have poor comprehension


Self-Regulated Learners

Students who have knowledge of effective learning strategies and how and when to use them


Student Teams-Achievement Divisions (STAD)

a coop. learning method of mixed-ability groupings involving team recognition and group responsibility for individual learning.