Chapter 8 Powerpoint pt. 1 Flashcards Preview

Criminal Justice 130 Survey of Criminal Law > Chapter 8 Powerpoint pt. 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 8 Powerpoint pt. 1 Deck (36):
1

The American legal system is based on the __________ __ ________ and the prosecution must establish every element of a crime beyond a reasonable doubt in order to establish a defendant’s guilt during the case-in-chief

presumption of innocence

2

The American legal system is based on the presumption of innocence and the prosecution must establish every element of a crime ______ __ __________ ______ in order to establish a defendant’s guilt during the case-in-chief

beyond a reasonable doubt

3

The American legal system is based on the presumption of innocence and the prosecution must establish every element of a crime beyond a reasonable doubt in order to establish a defendant’s guilt during the _____-__-_____

case-in-chief

4

A defendant is to be acquitted if the prosecution fails to establish each element of the offense _______ __ __________ ______.

beyond a reasonable doubt

5

The defense challenges the __________'s case during the rebuttal.

prosecution’s

6

The defense challenges the prosecution’s case during the _______.

rebuttal

7

Defendants may present __________ __________, or defenses in which the defendant typically possesses the burden of production as well as the burden of persuasion.

affirmative defenses

8

Defendants may present affirmative defenses, or defenses in which the defendant typically possesses the burden of __________ as well as the burden of __________.

production
persuasion

9

___________ and ________ are both affirmative defenses.

Justifications
excuses

10

Affirmative Defenses, assigns responsibility for raising a defense to the _________.

defendant

11

__________ _________, assigns responsibility for raising a defense to the defendant.

Affirmative Defenses

12

____________– defenses to otherwise criminal acts that society approves and encourages under the circumstances.

Justifications

13

________– defenses to acts that deserve condemnation, but for which the defendant is not held criminally liable because of a personal disability

Excuses

14

Who said :“Justification speaks to the rightness of the act; an excuse, to whether the actor is [mentally] accountable for a concededly wrongful act”?

Professor George Fletcher

15

In the _______ ____, justifications resulted in acquittals.

common law

16

In the common law, justifications resulted in ________.

acquittals

17

In the ________ ____, excuses provided the defendant with the opportunity to request that the king exempt him or her from the death penalty.

common law

18

In the common law, _______ provided the defendant with the opportunity to request that the king exempt him or her from the death penalty.

excuses

19

List the Defenses of Justification.

(1) Moral interest
(2) Superior interest
(3) Public benefit
(4) Moral forfeiture

20

What is the difference between moral interest and superior interest?

Moral interest – an individual’s act is justified based on the protection of an important moral interest
Superior interest – the interests being preserved outweigh the interests of the person who is harmed

21

______ _______ – an individual’s act is justified on the grounds that it is undertaken in service of the public good.

Public benefit

22

______ _________ – an individual perpetrating a crime has lost the right to claim legal protection

Moral forfeiture

23

What is the difference between perfect and imperfect defense?

Perfect defense, is satisfying every element of a justification defense
Imperfect defense, arises in those instances in which the requirements of the defense are not fully satisfied

24

___________ ________- make the case that otherwise criminal acts are approved of and encouraged by society given the circumstances.

Justification Defenses

25

________ _________- make the case that the act does deserve condemnation but the defendant should not be held liable due to a personal disability.

Excuse Defenses

26

The jury in death penalty cases is required to consider _________ and ___________ circumstances in determining whether the defendant should be subject to capital punishment or receive a life sentence.

mitigating
aggravating

27

The jury in death penalty cases is required to consider mitigating and aggravating circumstances in determining whether the defendant should be subject to ________ __________ or receive a _____ _________.

capital punishment
life sentence

28

The jury in ______ ________ cases is required to consider mitigating and aggravating circumstances in determining whether the defendant should be subject to capital punishment or receive a life sentence.

death penalty

29

The law is concerned with _____ crime an individual committed, not ____ he or she committed the crime.

what
why

30

__________ ____________ are factors that may reduce a defendant’s sentence during his or her trial.

Mitigating circumstances

31

What are some examples of mitigating circumstances?

Age, lack of criminal record, and remorse,

32

A _____ ______ _______ refers to committing a criminal act for what the defendant believes is a good reason.

good motive defense

33

A good motive defense refers to committing a criminal act for what the defendant believes is a _____ ______.

good reason

34

_____ ___________ is a check on overzealous prosecutors who bring charges that are contrary to prevailing social values.

Jury nullification

35

Jury nullification is a check on overzealous ___________ who bring charges that are contrary to prevailing ______ values.

prosecutors
social

36

True or False: Self Defense is recognized as a justification defense in all 50 states.

True