Chapter 9 - Blood, Lymphatic System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 9 - Blood, Lymphatic System Deck (198):
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What is blood

Connective tissue with a plasma matrix. The protein fibers are only visible when the blood clots.

1

What is blood mostly composed of

Rbc, wbc and platelets.

2

What are three functions of blood

Transport
Regulation (body temp, water balance, ph balance)
Defense (against pathogens, blood clotting)

3

What is plasma composed of

Water, proteins and other solutes

4

What are the formed elements composed of

Platelets, leukocytes and erythrocytes

5

Describe plasma

Fluid portion with dissolved substances: plasma proteins (albumin, globulins, clotting factors) and gases, nutrients, waste and hormones

6

What is % of blood volume dependant on

Species and amount of hydration. Cats have smaller rbc than dogs and a higher % of plasma in blood. Hemoconcentration vs. hemodilution

7

What is the normal yellow color in plasma due to

Bilirubin

8

Why can blood plasma appear cloudy

Due to postprandial lipemia. (Fat in blood after eating)

9

How do you avoid postprandial lipemia

Fast before taking a blood sample

10

What is the difference between serum and plasma

Serum is the same as plasma except it lacks clotting factors

11

What does supernatant mean

Serum

12

What is the intrinsic blood coagulation pathway

Surface contact
Hageman factor
(Active) hageman factor
Christmas factor
(Active) christmas factor
Stable factor
Platelet membrane
Phospholipid
Calcium ions
(Active) stable factor
P.M.P
Calcium ions

13

Describe the extrinsic blood coagulation pathway

Tissue damage
Tissue factor: stable factor
Stable factor
Platelet membrane phospholipid
Calcium ions

14

Describe the common coagulation pathway

V, platelet membrane, phospholipid
Prothrombin
Thrombin
Fibrin stabilizing factor OR fibrogen
Fibrin
Stable fibrin clot

15

What is an anticoagulant

Used to prevent blood clotting (coagulation) in vitro or in vivo. Substance blocks one of clotting factors in pathway

16

What does edta coagulation do

Binds ca++, used in lab (lavender top)

17

What does heparin anticoagulant do

Naturally occurring. Used to prevent thrombosis and embolism

18

What does warfarin anticoagulant do

In 1940: used as rat poison
In 1950: used medicinally as an oral anticoagulant

19

What are the three formed elements in blood

Erythrocytes
Leukocytes
Thrombocytes

20

How much percent of blood does plasma compose

55% of blood

21

What is a Buffy coat and what is it part of

It is leukocytes and thrombocytes, it's part of the formed elements and its it greater than 1% of whole blood

22

What is an erythrocyte and what is it part of

It is red blood cells and it composed 45% of whole blood

23

Wbc are considered what

Complete cells

24

Describe the physiology of a rbc

Have no nuclei or most other organelles

25

What are platelets considered

Cell fragments

26

How long do formed elements last in blood

Survive in bloodstream for a few days with the exception of wbc

27

Where do blood cells originate

Originate in red bone marrow and do not divide (exception: some wbc)

28

What is hematopoiesis

The formation of blood cells. It is a continual process: stem cells formed element cells

29

How long does it take a stem cell to turn into a rbc

15 days

30

How long do red blood cells survive

100-120 days

31

What is step 3 in the stem cell conversion to rbc

Proerythroblast turns into basophilic erythroblast

32

What is the 4th step in the conversion from stem cells to rbc

From a basophilic erythroblast to polychromatic erythroblast.

33

What is the 7th step of the conversion from stem cell to rbc

From orthochromatic erythroblast to reticulocyte

34

Describe phase 1 of the development pathway

Ribosome synthesis

35

What is phase 2 of the development pathway

Hemoglobin accumulation

36

What is phase 3 in the development pathway

Ejection of nucleus

37

What is polychromasia

Lavender cytoplasm. Hemoglobin production begins

38

What does the erythropoietin hormone

Stimulates erythropoiesis, always have a small amount in blood. High rbc or O2 levels depress production. Released by kidneys in response to hypoxia

39

What are the causes of hypoxia

Decreased rbc numbers due to hemorrhage or increase destruction. Insufficient hemoglobin per rbc (iron deficiency) or reduced availability of o2 (high altitudes)

40

In early fetus, what organs are responsible for hematopoiesis

Liver and spleen

41

When fetus ages, what becomes more prominent

Red bone marrow

42

As an animal ages what happens to red bone marrow

Red bone marrow is reduced to epiphyses and replaced by yellow bone marrow in diaphyses

43

What does anucleation mean in terms of erythrocytes

Making more space for hemoglobin

44

What are the benefits of having biconcave disks (erythrocytes)

Higher surface area to transport gases across membrane.
Flexible; can squeeze through small capillaries

45

What type of respiration do erythrocytes have

Anaerobic

46

Do erythrocytes have mitochondria ?

No

47

Do erythrocytes have a nucleus?

Only in non mammalian species

48

What do red blood cell size and color vary on

Species

49

How much of the cell does hemoglobin compose

35%

50

What is hemoglobin composed of

Globular proteins (4 polypeptides) + heme groups (containing iron )

51

How many O2 can each hemoglobin carry

4 O2

52

How many hemoglobin. Do we have in our body

250 million hb/rbc

53

Animals with smaller cells have

More rbc

54

What are the three types of hemoglobin

Embryonic hemoglobin (HBe)
Fetal hemoglobin (HbF)
Adult hemoglobin (Hb)

55

What's the difference between fetal hemoglobin and adult hemoglobin.

Fetal has a higher affinity to O2 than adult Hb. Very good in low O2 environment

56

Describe O2 loading in lungs

Produces oxyhemoglobulin (ruby red)
Hb+O2 ➡️ HbO2

57

Describe O2 unloading in tissues

Produces deoxyhemoglobin or empty hemoglobin (dark red)
Hb+o2➡️HbO2

58

Describe CO2 loading in tissues

20% of CO2 in blood binds to Hb
Hb + CO2 ➡️ HbCO2

59

What does the lifespan of red blood cells depend on

Varies by species. Large animals have longer living rbc

60

What does senesce mean

Age

61

As red blood cells age what happens

Become rounder with less surface area and get trapped in spleen

62

What happens to old rbc when they get trapped in the spleen

Most are phagocytized by macrophages (wbc) in spleen, some destroyed in blood vessels.

63

What happens when rbc die

Replaced by young cells from red bone marrow

64

What happens to globins when they're separated from heme

Globins are metabolized into amino acids which are sent to liver for production of new proteins

65

What happens to iron when it's Seperated from heme and globin

Iron salvaged for reuse; sent to red bone marrow

66

What happens to heme when it's Seperated from globin

Heme is degraded to yellow pigment called bilirubin. Sent to liver to be used in bile which is secreted into the small intestine

67

What happens if liver is unable to process all the bilirubin,

it can collect in the tissues which is jaundice

68

What is anemia ?

Blood has abnormally low O2 carrying capacity. Low O2 levels cannot support metabolism.

69

What are the symptoms of anemia

Fatigue, pallor

70

What is the cause of anemia

Blood loss, decreased erythropoiesis, decreased hemoglobin production

71

What is polycythemia

Abnormally high number of rbc

72

What are the three types of polycythemia

Relative polycythemia
Compensatory polycythemia
Polycythemia ruba Vera

73

Define relative polycythemia

Hemoconcentration (loss of plasma) due to dehydration

74

Define compensatory polycythemia

Increased erythropoiesis due to hypoxia

75

Define polycythemia ruba Vera

Rare idiopathic bone marrow disorder

76

How do you determine amount of cells in blood

❤️Manually count with the hematocytometer slide
❤️Hematocrit or packed cell volume

77

What does a hematocrit do

Calculate % of rbc (+ Buffy coat plasma)

78

What are thrombocytes

Platelets that are fragments of larger cells (megakaryocytes)

79

What are the functions of platelets

❤️Nurture endothelial cells, reduce potential hemorraging
❤️Form temporary platelet plug that helps seal breaks in blood vessels
❤️Contain some clotting factors required for coagulation

80

What is the steps in the formation of platelets

Stem cell (hemocytoblast)➡️megakaryoblast(stage 1)➡️megakaryocyte(stage 2-3)➡️️megakaryocyte (stage 4)➡️platelets

81

What are leukocytes

White blood cells

82

Describe white blood cells

Nucleated
Make up less than 1 percent of total blood volume
Function in defense against pathogens

83

What is leukocytosis

Increased wbc

84

What is leukocytopenia

Decreased wbc

85

What do leukocytes do

Function in defense against pathogens by leaving capillaries and travel into tissues

86

Describe granulocytes

Visible cytoplasmic granules

87

What are three granulocytes

Neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils

88

What are agranulocytes

No cytoplasmic granules

89

What are the two agranulocytes

Lymphocytes and monocytes (microphages)

90

What are the leukocytes in decreasing order of abundance

Neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils

91

Describe granulocytes

❤️Larger and shorter lived than rbc.
❤️Lobed nuclei (polymorphonuclear)
❤️Cytoplasmic granules stain specifically with wright's stain
❤️all phagocytic to some degree (neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils)

92

What does red wright's stain mean

Acidic

93

What does a blue wright's stain mean

Basic

94

What does a lavender wright stain mean

Neutral

95

Describe neutrophils

❤️Most numerous wbc (50-70%)
❤️also called polymorphonuclear leukocytes
❤️granules stain lavender contains enzymes and antimicrobial proteins that kill pathogens
❤️bacteria slayers

96

Describe eosinophils

❤️<5% total wbc
❤️red staining granules
❤️bilobed nucleus
❤️granules released enzymes to digest parasitic worms

97

What is a basophils

❤️Least numerous wbc (0.5-1%)
❤️nucleus deep purple with 1-2 constrictions
❤️large, purpleish black granules containing histamine
❤️are functionally similar to mast cells

98

What is histamine

Inflammatory chemical that acts as a vasodilator to allow wbc to reach site of infection

99

What is an agranulocytes

Lack visible cytoplasmic granules
Have spherical or kidney shaped nuclei: lymphocytes and monocytes

100

What are lymphocytes

❤️2nd most numerous wbc
❤️Large, dark purple circular nuclei with a blue cytoplasm.
❤️Mostly in lymphoid tissue (lymph nodes, spleen) and a few are in blood.
❤️Crucial to immunity

101

What are the two types of lymphocytes

➡️ T lymphocytes (T Cells): act against virus infected cells and tumor cells
➡️B lymphocytes (B Cells): give rise to plasma cells, which produce antibodies

102

What is a monocytes

❤️largest leukocytes
❤️abundant pale blue cytoplasm
❤️dark purple staining, u or kidney shaped nuclei

103

What is the pathway of monocytes

Leave circulation, enter tissues and differentiate into macrophages ➡️ activate phagocytic cells and lymphocytes to trigger immune response

104

What is hemostasis

❤️Rapid series of reactions for stoppage of bleeding.
❤️Require clotting factors and substances released by platelets and injured tissues.

105

What are the three steps to hemostasis

➡️ Vasoconstriction
➡️platelet plug formation
➡️ coagulation

106

What is vasoconstriction

❤️Narrowing of damaged blood vessel
❤️Most effective in smaller blood vessels

107

What is vasoconstriction triggered by

➡️direct injury to vascular smooth muscle
➡️chemicals released by endothelial cell platelets
➡️pain reflex

108

What is platelet plug formation

Damaged endothelium exposes collagen fibers;
➡️platelets stick to collagen fibers
➡️platelets swell, become spiked and sticky, and released chemicals to cause more platelets to aggregate (positive feedback)

109

What is a basophils

❤️Least numerous wbc (0.5-1%)
❤️nucleus deep purple with 1-2 constrictions
❤️large, purpleish black granules containing histamine
❤️are functionally similar to mast cells

110

What is histamine

Inflammatory chemical that acts as a vasodilator to allow wbc to reach site of infection

111

What is an agranulocytes

Lack visible cytoplasmic granules
Have spherical or kidney shaped nuclei: lymphocytes and monocytes

112

What are lymphocytes

❤️2nd most numerous wbc
❤️Large, dark purple circular nuclei with a blue cytoplasm.
❤️Mostly in lymphoid tissue (lymph nodes, spleen) and a few are in blood.
❤️Crucial to immunity

113

What are the two types of lymphocytes

➡️ T lymphocytes (T Cells): act against virus infected cells and tumor cells
➡️B lymphocytes (B Cells): give rise to plasma cells, which produce antibodies

114

What is a monocytes

❤️largest leukocytes
❤️abundant pale blue cytoplasm
❤️dark purple staining, u or kidney shaped nuclei

115

What is the pathway of monocytes

Leave circulation, enter tissues and differentiate into macrophages ➡️ activate phagocytic cells and lymphocytes to trigger immune response

116

What is hemostasis

❤️Rapid series of reactions for stoppage of bleeding.
❤️Require clotting factors and substances released by platelets and injured tissues.

117

What are the three steps to hemostasis

➡️ Vasoconstriction
➡️platelet plug formation
➡️ coagulation

118

What is vasoconstriction

❤️Narrowing of damaged blood vessel
❤️Most effective in smaller blood vessels

119

What is vasoconstriction triggered by

➡️direct injury to vascular smooth muscle
➡️chemicals released by endothelial cell platelets
➡️pain reflex

120

What is platelet plug formation

Damaged endothelium exposes collagen fibers;
➡️platelets stick to collagen fibers
➡️platelets swell, become spiked and sticky, and released chemicals to cause more platelets to aggregate (positive feedback)

121

Describe the pathway of platelet plug formation

Injury to lining of a vessel exposes fibers and platelets adhere. The fibrin forms a mesh that traps red blood cells and platelets forming the clot. Releases chemicals that make nearby platelets sticky and platelet plug forms.

122

What is coagulation

❤️Reinforce his platelet plug with fibrin threads.
❤️Blood transformed from liquid to gel.
❤️Series of reaction use 13 clotting factors.
❤️Clotting factor 1 to 13 are mostly soluble plasma proteins made a liver. ❤️Vitamin K is needed to synthesize four of them

123

what is the first phase of coagulation

Prothrombin activator formed in both intrinsic (contact activation) and extrinsic (tissue factor) pathway

124

What is the second phase of coagulation

Prothrombin (plasma protein) converted to enzyme thrombin

125

What is the third phase of coagulation

Thrombin catalyzes fibrinogen (soluble plasma protein) into fibrin (insoluble plasma protein). Forms a fibrin and protein mesh stabilizing the internal platelet clot.

126

Upon repair of an injury what happens to the coagulated factors

Upon repair other factors dissolve fibrin clot through fibrinolysis

127

What is a normal clotting time

3 to 5 minutes

128

How do you decrease clotting time

Use gauze which is a contact material to serve as a foundation for the clot

129

What are factors that increase clotting time

❤️Lack of vitamin K.
❤️Liver disorders.
❤️Hemophilia.
❤️Thrombocytopenia.
❤️Lack of blood calcium.

130

What is immunity mean

Resistance to disease

131

What is the immune system do

Keep pathogens out. destroys them if they get in. Body recognizes self from nonself

132

What is an autoimmune disorder

Disorder where the body does not recognize itself

133

What is considered the innate defenses

First and second line of defense

134

What is considered acquired or adoptive defenses

The third line of defense which is composed of humoral immunity or cellular immunity

135

What is the first line of defense considered. And what makes up it

Nonspecific physical and chemical surface barrier. The skin and mucous membranes make it up

136

What is the second line of defense considered and what makes it up

Nonspecific internal cellular and chemical Defense. It is made up of Phagocytes,natural killer cells, inflammation, antimicrobial proteins, fever

137

What is the third line of defense considered and what makes up it

Immune response. Humoral immunity which is B cells and cellular immunity which is T cells

138

What does the humoral immunity involve

Involves anti-bodies made by B cells

139

What does cellular immunity involve

Involve cytotoxic T cells

140

Describe skin which is the first line of physical surface barriers

It is stratified, keratinized and relatively dry. Tight junctions seal epithelial cells together

141

Describe mucosa which is the first line of physical surface barriers

Mucus traps dust and pathogens. Cillia of upper respiratory tract move mucus toward mouth to be coughed or swallowed

142

Describe acidity which is the first line of chemical surface barriers

Skin, stomach, vagina, urinary tract. Acidity inhibits growth of many microbes

143

Describe sebum which is the first line of chemical surface barriers

Some lipids released by sebaceous glands have antimicrobial properties

144

Describe enzymes which is part of the first line of chemical surface barriers

Lysozymes in tears and saliva. Pepcin and proteases in G.I. tract. Antimicrobial proteins called defensins which are secreted by the skin and the mucous membrane

145

Describe the second line of internal defense

Defensive cells which are phagocytes and natural killer cells. Antimicrobial proteins. Inflammatory response. Fever.

146

What are neutrophils

Phagocytes. Most abundant of white blood cells (50 to 70%). Short-lived and do not return to blood

147

Describe macrophages

Develop from monocytes. Most effective.

148

Define free macrophages

Wander through tissue spaces

149

Define fixed macrophages

Permanent residents of many organs such as the lungs, liver, nerves, lymph nodes

150

Describe the mechanism of phagocytosis

Phagocyte engulfs pathogens and toxins. Phagocyte must adhere to cell or substance.

151

How can bacteria evade adherence from a macrophage

Have a capsule.

152

What is opsonization

Marks pathogens by coating it with complement proteins which is a type of antimicrobial proteins. Phagocytes are assisted in recognizing by B cells which are making the anti-body specific to this bacterial strain

153

Describe the natural killer cells

Non-phagocytic. Large granule lymphocytes. Similar to cytotoxic T cells but nonspecific in their targets. Attack cells that lack self cell surface receptors which Are MHC molecules. Also secrete chemicals that enhance inflammatory response

154

How do natural killer cells Attack cells

Release proteins called perforins which form pores in target cells. Then release more chemicals into cells which induce apoptosis in cancer cells and virus-infected cells

155

What is the inflammatory response

Triggered when tissue is damaged. Benefits is that it prevents the spread of pathogen or toxins which alerts the third line of defense

156

What are the four signs of acute inflammation

Redness. Heat. Sweating. Pain

157

What is cellulitis

Inflammation of the subdermal tissues

158

Describe inflammatory response

Chemicals are released by cells which trigger inflammatory response. Injured mast cells release histamine and microphages, NK cells and tissue cells release other chemicals.

159

What is the actual inflammatory response

Dilation of local arterioles.
Cause redness and heat of inflamed region.
Make capillaries leaky which causes increased permeability. Fluid enters tissues causing swelling.
Attracts leukocytes to area by chemotaxis

160

What is the first stages of clot formation

. Blood vessels widen which causes redness. Bloodflow carries defensive cells and chemicals to damaged tissue and remove the toxins

161

What is the second stage in clot formation

Heat. Increases metabolic rate of cells in the injured area to speed healing

162

What is the third stage in clot formation

Swelling. Fluid containing defensive chemicals, blood clotting factors, oxygen, nutrients, defensive cells seep into the injured area

163

What is the fourth stage of clot formation

Pain. Capillaries become more permeable. Movements hampered allowing the injured area to heal

164

What is the fifth stage of clot formation

Complement destroys bacteria

165

What is the sixth stage of clot formation

Phagocytose engulfs the bacteria

166

What is the seventh stage of clot formation

Clot formation prevents loss of blood

167

What is diapedesis

It's the movement of leukocytes out of capillaries . They squeeze between endothelial cells

168

What are interferons

Proteins released by virus-infected cells which prevent healthy cells from being infected by a virus. They activate microphages and natural killer cells. They are non-virus specific. Used medically as antivirals and cancer and viral disorders

169

What are complement proteins

20 plasma proteins that circulate in the blood and then in an inactive form

170

What are the three major mechanisms for destroying foreign substances

❤️stimulate inflammatory response and chemotaxis.
❤️enhance phagocytosis via opsonization.
❤️kill bacteria and other foreign cells directly via compliment fixation and cytolysis

171

What is the classical complement pathway

Activated by anti-bodies coding the target cell

172

What is the lectin complement pathway

Activated by lectin's binding to specific sugars on micro organisms surface

173

What is the alternative complement pathway

Activated spontaneously. Lack of inhibitors on micro organisms surface allows process to proceed

174

What is the opsonization complement pathway

Coats pathogen surface which enhances phagocytosis

175

What is the inflammation complement pathway

Stimulates histamine release increases blood vessel permeability and attracts phagocytes by chemotaxis.

176

What happens when complement components are active

Macs form from active complement components that insert into the target cell membrane creating pores that can lyse the target cell

177

What is a fever or pyrexia

❤️Abnormally high body temperature. ❤️Systemic response to invading microorganisms.
❤️Leukocytes and macrophages exposed to foreign substances secrete pyrogens.
❤️Pyrogens act on the bodies thermostat in hypothalamus raising setpoint for body's temperature greater than 37

178

What are the benefits of moderate fever

Causes liver and spleen to sequester iron and zinc which is needed by micro organisms to grow. Increases metabolic rate which makes a faster repair

179

What are three characteristics of the third line of defense

1.specific: recognizes and targets specific pathogens or foreign molecules.
2. memory: remembers past pathogens so response will be faster next time.
3.self tolerant: can distinguish self from nonself and won't attack own tissues

180

What is the specificity and memory of the immune system due to

The B lymphocytes and the T lymphocytes

181

Where do B lymphocytes or B cells mature

Mature in bone marrow

182

Where do you T lymphocytes or T cells mature

In the thymus gland

183

Where do stem cells develop from

In bone marrow or in fetal liver

184

What are antigens

Anti-body generators.
Substances that can stimulate B or T cells and provoke an immune response.
Most antigens are large complex molecules not normally found in the body however sometimes benign substances of self cells are treated as antigens

185

What are antigenic determinants

Epitopes. The part of an antigen that causes an immune response.
Antibodies and lymphocyte receptors bind to them.
Most pathogenic antigens have numerous antigenic determinants.

186

How is the body self tolerant and able to recognize its own cells

All nucleated cells have a molecular tag that identifies them as self. MHC molecules. Foreign cells have different tags. Only identical twins have the same MHC molecules. A self MHC marker labels the body cells as self

187

Describe MHC molecules

Used by infected cells and macrophages use to present antigens to immune system cells. Lymphocytes and macrophages is only bind to antigens presented on MHC proteins.

188

What is the humoral (antibody mediated) immunity

B cells make antibodies against specific pathogens or toxins

189

What is cellular Immunity

T cells kill specific cells directly or indirectly. Also macrophages act as antigen presenting cells which present the antigens of pathogens they phagocytized

190

What are anti-bodies

Proteins produced by plasma B cells which are short-lived. Circulate in body fluids. Bond to antigens marking it for destruction by Phagocytes or complements. Memory B cells remains in circulation once antibodies disappear.

191

How do killer cytotoxic T cells kill directly

By killing infected or cancerous cells

192

How do helper T cells kill indirectly

By releasing chemicals that enhance inflammatory response or by activating other lymphocytes or macrophages to kill affected cell.

193

How do you suppressor or regulatory T cells work

Keep immune system a check through negative feedback

194

What is the immunological memory

The Primal immune response. Clonal selection upon first antigen exposure. The lag Is 3 to 6 days. Peek antibody levels at 10 days and then they decline

195

What is the secondary immune response

Re exposure to same antigen gives more prolonged, more effective response. Antibody levels peak into to three days at much higher levels and remain high for weeks

196

What is active humoral immunity

Occurs when B cells encounter antigens and produce specific antibodies against them.
1. Naturally acquired: which is a response to bacteria infection
2. Artificially acquired: a response to vaccine of dead pathogens

197

What is passive humoral immunity

Occurs when the antibodies are introduced into the body. Protection immediate but ends when anti-bodies naturally degrade in body because of no immunological memory.
1. Naturally acquired: anti-bodies delivered to feed us via placenta or infant through colostrum.
2. Artificially acquired: injection of antibodies. Given when exposed to rabies.