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Anatomy And Physiology 2 > Lab Exam > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lab Exam Deck (178):
0

What is one function of the nasopalatine duct

Forms a connection between the oral cavity and the nasal passage. Allows for Flemen response. This duct is found in all mammals

1

Where are rugae found

On the surface of the hard palate and the stomach

2

What is the function of tonsils in mammals

Trap germs that you breathe in

3

What is the dental formula for a cat

3131
3121

4

How can you easily distinguish the trachea from the esophagus

Esau for guess is a smooth tube. The trachea is made of cartilaginous rings

5

What species of animals is the cardiac sphincter more muscular and thus provides vomiting

Rabbits and horses

6

Name two mesenteric connections of the stomach

Greater and lesser Omenta

7

What type of tissue composes mesentery

Connective tissue

8

What regions of the stomach have gastric glands

The fundus

9

List three cells found in these gastric glands pits

Chief cells, Entero-endocrine cells and parietal cells

10

What does the gastrin hormone do

Triggers the release of HCl and stimulates gastric muscle contractions of the Antrum region

11

Where are the sphincters located

In the pylorus and Cardia region of stomach

12

How is the proximity of the do addendum to the pancreas and liver and gallbladder advantageous

Less time to secrete hormones into the duodenum

13

What causes the velvety appearance of the small intestine

The villi projecting from the mucosal and submucosal layer

14

What are the small lumps in the wall of the ileum called and what is their function

Pyers patches and their function is part of the lymphatic system (malt)

15

What does the common bile duct do

Carries bile from the liver and gallbladder to the small intestine

16

What substances are carried in the pancreatic ducts

Pancreatic enzymes

17

Which part of the colon is more proximal to the cecum

Ascending

18

Between a cat, a rat and a pig which species would you expect to have the largest caecum

The rat due to his diet

19

What are the distinguishing features of the salivary glands

Single layer of simple squamous white cells within

20

What are the distinguishing features of the pancreas

Pancreatic islets

21

What are the distinguishing features of the esophagus

Thick layer of skeletal muscle and a layer of smooth muscle

22

What are the distinguishing features of the stomach Cardia

Fingerlike projections

23

What are the distinguishing features of the duodenum

Branches, tubuloacinar duodenal glands in submucosa. Simple columnar folds

24

Describe the distinguishing features of the jejunum

Cells in columnar enterocytes the purple circle. Think layer of smooth muscle

25

Describe the distinguishing features of the ileum

Peyers patches: purple round things. Folds with simple columnar surrounding

26

Describe the distinguishing features of the colon

Lymphatic nodules, absorptive columnar cells and goblet cells

27

Describe the distinguishing features of teeth

Pulp, Dentin

28

What is the function of the omasum

Absorbs the vfa

29

What is the function of the Rumen

Fermentation vat

30

Lub (s1) is the sound heard during the blank of the blank valves

Closing of the AV valves. Which follows ventricular systole.

31

Dub (s2) is the sound heard during the blank of the blank valves

Closing of the semi lunar valves's. This sound follows ventricular diastole

32

How do you determine the heart rate

Generally you measure the heart rate for 15 seconds use that value to calculate the number of beats per minute

33

What is a pulse

Alternating surges of pressure. Arterial expansion then recoil that occurs with each contraction and relaxation of the left ventricle. A pulse can usually be felt on any superficial artery

34

What Are some arteries you can feel for a pulse

The femoral artery, the dorsal pedal artery, the plantar surface of the foot

35

What does an electro cardiogram measure

An electrocardiogram measures the electrical activity depolarization and repolarization of the heart during one cardiac cycle.

36

What is happening during the P-wave

Atrial depolarization

37

What is happening during the QRS complex

Ventricular depolarization

38

What is happening during the T-wave

Ventricular repolarization

39

In lead two placement the RF is what

Negative

40

In the lead two placement The LH is what

Positive

41

In the lead two placement The LF is what

Neutral

42

What is blood pressure and where is it measured

Blood pressure is defined as the pressure blood exerts against the vessels walls. Generally it is measured in the arteries. Because the heart artery alternatively contracts and relaxes the rhythmic flow of blood in the arteries causes blood pressure to rise and fall during each beat thus you can obtain two values systolic pressure and diastolic pressure. Both reported in millimeters of mercury with the systolic value appearing first.

43

What is systolic pressure

Pressure at the peak of ventricular ejection

44

What is diastolic pressure

Pressure during ventricular relaxation

45

Does the Doppler blood pressure device measure

The Doppler blood pressure device measures systolic pressure only. A cuff is inflated around an animals distal limb or tail so that the inflated pressure is higher than the systolic pressure. The pressure stops circulation in the limb so that no more sounds are heard. Slowly the cuff is deflated. When the sounds of blood flow return this value is recorded as the systolic pressure

46

What does and oscillometric device measure

Measures both the systolic and diastolic pressure

47

How do you determine the proper cuff size for your patient

It should be 40% of the leg width

48

What does the pulse oximetry machine do

Noninvasive method used to determine O2 saturation in the blood. Uses red and infrared light to measure O2 levels because hemoglobin with different levels of oxygenation will reflect different wavelengths of light. Oxygenated hemoglobin absorbs more infrared light and allows more red light to pass through

49

Where is the SA node located

Where the cranial vena cava meets the right atrium

50

Why do semilunar valves lack cordinae tendinae

Because they don't have as much force

51

What action of the heart makes the Lubs sound

Closing of the AV valves

52

What action of the heart makes the dub sound

Closing of the semilunar valve's

53

What is the function of the umbilical arteries

Carry deoxygenated blood from the fetus to the placenta

54

What are two ways fetal blood can bypass the pulmonary circuit

Through the foreman ovale or the ductus arteriosus

55

Which vertebrae group lacks a pulmonary circuit

Fish

56

Why do amphibians have a Pulmocutaneous circuit

They breathe through their skin

57

What is the advantage to having two ventricles

More efficient due to unmixed blood

58

What are the distinguishing features of a vein

Endothelium, blood cells. some smooth muscle

59

What are the distinguishing features of an artery

Lumen, red blood cells, membrane, endothelium. Lots of smooth muscle

60

What are the distinguishing features of a capillary

Capillaries and purple center. Small lumen

61

What are The distinguishing features of cardiac muscle

Striated, branched muscle with a single nucleus

62

What species have carnassial teeth

Cats, dogs, wolves

63

Why would a bears carnassial teeth be different than a cats

It is adapted to its diet and it doesn't need teeth that are as pointy because they eat berries as well as meat

64

What are three things charted during a dental exam

Number of teeth, recession and calculus and gingivitis index

65

What does the line running through the teeth represent

The gum line

66

Why are some boxes on the dental charts are blacked out for furcation

Because those teeth are not multirooted

67

In what species would we find a peg tooth and what is it

Rabbits and it's the tooth behind incisors

68

Are humans brachydont or hypsodont. What does it mean

Brachydont, short crown

69

Name three species that lack incisors

Deer, sheep, goats, cows and snake

70

What animals have incisors that grows continuously throughout their life

Rodents and rabbits

71

Rodent incisors only have enamel on the labial surface. How is this beneficial

Keep tooth strong but allows for good grinding

72

What are three common venipuncture sites in cats

Cephalic vein
Jugular vein
Femoral vein

73

What is the name for the flap of connective tissue that makes up a heart valve

A cusp

74

What are the little cords of connective tissue that attach the free edges of an atrioventricular valve to the walls of the ventricle

Chordinae tendinae

75

How many cusps does the mitral valve have

Two

76

Does the right or left ventricle of the heart have the thicker muscle? Why?

Left ventricle. Because it has to pump oxygenated blood to the entire body not just the lungs

77

How many cusps does the tricuspid valve have

Three

78

Which side of the heart is the tricuspid valve located on

Right side

79

Which valves are known as the semilunar valves

Aortic and pulmonary

80

Which valve is located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery

Pulmonary valve

81

What is the name for the wide cranial end of the heart where arteries and veins enter and exit

Base of the heart

82

What is the name for the caudal pointed end of the heart containing the left ventricle

Apex of the heart

83

Is a blood vessel carrying blood away from the heart an afferent or efferent blood vessel

Efferent

84

Is a blood vessel carrying blood toward the heart an afferent or efferent blood vessel

Afferent

85

Which side of the heart pumps blood to the lungs

The right side

86

Which side of the heart receives blood from the body

Right

87

What vessel carries blood from the lungs to the heart

Pulmonary vein

88

What is the valve between the left ventricle and the largest systemic artery

Aortic valve

89

What is the name of the largest systemic aftery

Aorta

90

Is the vena cava an afferent or efferent blood vessel

Afferent

91

Is the aorta an afferent or efferent blood vessel

Efferent

92

Is the blood in the aorta oxygen rich or oxygen poor

Oxygen rich

93

Is the blood in the vena cava oxygen rich or oxygen poor

Oxygen poor

94

Is the blood in the pulmonary artery oxygen rich or oxygen poor

Oxygen poor

95

What artery supplies blood to the head

Carotid artery

96

What vessel carries blood from the heart to the lungs

Pulmonary vein

97

What is the largest vein in the body

Vena cava

98

What superficial vessels (artery and vein) lay on the medial surface of the inner thigh

Femoral artery and femoral vein

99

What vein runs up the cranial surface of the forelimb below the elbow

Cephalic vein

100

What vein is located just distal to the femoral vein on the hind limb

Saphenous

101

What vein us normally used when drawing up a large volume of blood

Jugular vein

102

What vein curves up the lateral surface of the hind limb just above the hock

Saphenous vein

103

What blood vessels that supply blood to the hind limb does the abdominal aorta divide into

Iliac arteries

104

Is the jugular vein an afferent or efferent blood vessel

Afferent

105

Is the color of arterial blood dark or bright red? Why?

Bright red. Carries large amounts of oxygen

106

Does venous blood spurt or ooze from a damaged vein and why

Ooze. Because it is carrying blood to the heart under low pressure

107

Does arterial blood spurt or ooze from a damaged artery? Why?

Spurt. It is carrying blood from the heart under high pressure and is affected by beating rhythm of the heart. Each spurt represents a contraction of the left ventricle

108

Define aorta

Major artery of the systemic circulation that receives blood from the left ventricle

109

Define aortic arch

After leaving the heart and the cranial direction, the portion which the aorta turns caudally to leave to go to the abdominal cavity

110

Define aortic valve

The valve between the left ventricle and the aorta

111

Define artery

Blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart

112

Define atrioventricular node

A heart valve located between an atrium and ventricle. The right AV it's the tricuspid valve and the left AV is the mitral valve

113

Define the atrium

Heart chamber that receives blood from the large veins. Right atrium receives blood from vena cava and left atrium receives blood from the pulmonary vein

114

Define auricle

Externally visible part of atrium

115

Define Capillary

Smallest blood vessel composed of rolled up tubes of simple squamous epithelium that form extensive networks all over the body. Exchange of nutrients gases and wastes

116

Define caudal vena cava

The large vein that returns blood to the heart from the caudal part of the body

117

Define Cordae tendinae

Find threadlike cords that connect the free edge of the atrioventricular valves to the papillary muscle in the ventricules

118

Define coronary circulation

The blood vessels that carry blood to and from the cells and tissues of the heart

119

Define cranial vena cava

The large vein that returns blood to the heart from the head and forelimbs

120

Define diastole

The relaxation, filled phase of a heart chamber

121

Define endocardium

The innermost layer of tissue that lines the heart chambers

122

Define heart

The muscular pump that pumps blood cells and tissues of the body

123

Define inter-atrial septum

The wall of myocardium that separates the left and right atria of the heart

124

Define interventricular groove

The fat filled groove on the outside of the heart that corresponds to the location of the interventricular septum

125

Define interventricular septum

The walls of myocardium that separates the left and right ventricles of the heart

126

Defined mediastinum

The space to the thorax between the lungs that contains the trachea, esophagus, heart, nerves, lymphatic vessels and major blood vessels

127

Define mitral valve

The valve between the left atrium and left ventricle

128

Define moderator band

Band of connective tissue in the right ventricle that provides extra support for the ventricle plus prevents it from expanding

129

Defined myocardium

Thick muscular layer of the heart wall

130

Define pericardial sac

The outermost layer of the pericardium that surrounds the heart

131

Define pericardium

Protective outer layer covering the heart

132

Define pulmonary circulation

The blood circulating to the lungs

133

Define pulmonary valve

The valve between the right ventricle and pulmonary artery also known as the pulmonary valve

134

Define pulmonary vessels

Blood vessels that carry blood to and from the lungs

135

Define renal artery and vein

Blood vessels that carry blood to and from the kidneys

136

Define sinoatrial node

Natural pacemaker of the heart

137

Define semilunar valve's

Another name for the pulmonary and aortic valve's

138

Define systemic circulation

The blood circulation to and from all parts of the body except for the lungs

139

Define Systole

The contract and pumping phase of the heart chamber

140

Define tricuspid valve

The valve between the right atrium and the right ventricle

141

Define vein

A blood vessel that carries blood towards the heart

142

Define ventricle

The heart chamber that pumps blood out through the large arteries the left ventricle pumps blood out through the aorta and the right ventricle pumps blood through the pulmonary artery

143

What is the Cardia and what does it do

It is the opening from the esophagus. Has a cardiac sphincter which helps reduce reflux

144

What is the Antrum and what is it do

It grinds up swallowed food and also regulates HCL secretion in fundus and body

145

What is the fundus and what is it do

The distensible blind poach which expands as more food is swallowed, then changes shape to close off esophagus

146

What is the body and what is it do

Distensible middle section containing numerous gastric glands

147

What is the pylorus and what is it do

Muscular sphincter which regulates the movement of chime from the stomach and the duodenum

148

What is the function of the reticulum

Most cranial compartment, continuous muscular wall so compartments contract together

149

What is the function of the omasum

Muscular organ that mechanically breaks food down

150

What is the function of the rumen

Site of fermentation and anaerobic cellular respiration. Fermentation vat lined with finger like papilla

151

What is the function of the abomasum

The true stomach that functions like a monogastric stomach

152

Explain the process of emulsification. How do bile acids from the liver aid in fat digestion

Agitation in pyloric Antrum grinds fat globules into small droplets.bile coats fat droplets in duodenum. Lipases breakdown triglycerides into glycerol and fatty acids

153

What are the building blocks of molecules derived from the digestion of fat

Glycerol, fatty acid, micelles and fat-soluble vitamins

154

Describe three functions of the liver

Produce bile acid that is stored in gallbladder.
Remove and neutralize toxins that enter the body through the G.I. tract.
Stores and metabolizes nutrients absorbed by the G.I. tract

155

Describe the difference between a herbivore, carnivore, omnivore

A developed caecum versus a nonfunctional caecum

156

What are the five key functions of the gastrointestinal tract

Absorption, excretion, mastication, prehension, ingestion

157

Which part of the ruminant digestive system most closely resembles the monogastric stomach

The abomasum

158

What are the components of the small intestine

The duodenum, jejunum, ileum

159

What are the components of the large intestine

Caecum, colon, rectum, anus

160

Which digestive related organ has both exocrine and endocrine function

The pancreas

161

What is an inflammation of the gingiva called

Gingivitis

162

What are the muscular folds that divide the sacs of the rumen called

Rumenoreticular folds

163

What does the P-wave signify in the contractions of the heart

Depolarization of atria in response to SA node

164

What does the PR interval represent in the contractions of the heart

Delay of the AV node to allow filling the ventricles

165

What does the QRS complex signify in the contractions of the heart

Depolarization of ventricles, triggers pumping contractions

166

What is the ST segment signify in the contractions of the heart

The beginning of ventricle repolarization

167

What does the T-wave signify and the contractions of the heart

Ventricular repolarization

168

Trace blood through the systemic circulation

Pulmonary veins➡️left atrium➡️bicuspid valve➡️left ventricle ➡️aortic semilunar valve➡️aorta➡️arteries➡️arterials➡️capillaries➡️venules➡️caudal/cranial vena cava➡️right atrium

169

Trace the blood through the pulmonary circulation

Right atrium➡️tricuspid valve➡️right ventricle➡️pulmonary semilunar valve ➡️pulmonary artery➡️lungs➡️systemic circulation

170

What is the dental formula for a dog

3142
3143

171

What is the dental formula for a horse

3143
3133

172

What is the dental formula for a pig

3143
3143

173

What is the dental formula for a cow

0033
3133

174

Where does incisor naming start

1

175

Where does canine naming start

4

176

Where does premolar naming start

5-8

177

Where does molar naming start

9-11