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Anatomy And Physiology 2 > Reproductive System + Pregnancy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Reproductive System + Pregnancy Deck (182):
0

Describe the reproductive system

Non-essential for survival of individual, however a sensual, for survival of species. Evolution of sexual behavior reflects importance of reproduction.

1

What do the differences in gender roles affect

Behavior, anatomy, physiology between sexes

2

What are the purpose of the reproductive system

Produce and transport gametes to females which is the site of embryonic development. Produce hormones that cause sexual maturation, gamete production, stimulate ovulation, Gestation, lactation. Nourish developing offspring.

3

Describe chromosomes in relation to the reproductive system

Animals have diploid number of chromosomes in their somatic cells. 2N. Diploid cells have homologous pairs of chromosomes one for mother and one from father. Chromosome pairs are genetically different but code for the same genes.

4

How many chromosomes do cats have

38

5

How Many chromosomes to humans have

46

6

How many chromosomes do dogs have

78

7

What are sex chromosomes

Pair of chromosomes that determine the gender

8

Who is the Homogametic sex

female

9

What is the name for a sex cell

Gamete

10

Are gametes diploid or haploid

Haploid

11

How are gametes formed

Formed by the process of meiosis. 2N to N

12

What do sex cells contain

Half the genetic material of somatic cells

13

What is spermatogenesis

The formation of spermatozoa

14

What is oogenesis

The formation of ova

15

Why are gametes genetically different from each other

Due to independent assortment and crossing over

16

When does independent assortment occur

Metaphase one

17

When does the crossing over occur

Prophase one

18

What is spermatogenesis

The formation of spermatozoa

19

Where does spermatogenesis occur

In the seminiferous tubule's

20

Each spermatogonium produces how many sperm

4

21

What is oogenesis

The formation of ova

22

Where does oogenesis occur

In the follicles of the ovaries

23

at what point does Oogenesis stop until estrus

Prophase one

24

How many ova does each oogonium produce

One.

25

How do the polar bodies form for the ovum

Uneven cytokinesis

26

What are the three male reproductive system functions

Make male sex hormones called androgens. Make spermatozoa. Deliver spermatozoa to female

27

Describe the testes

Paired oval structures located in external caudal sacs called the scrotum in the inguinal region

28

Describe the skin of the scrotum

Scrotum is thin and lacks subcutaneous fat. Has sweat glands. Alopecic but not at all species

29

What does the cremaster muscle do and what is it in response to

It pulls the testicles cranially. It is in response to temperature

30

Where did the testicles develop. And when do they decend

The testicles develop in the cranial abdominal cavity and descend into the scrotal sac prior to birth.

31

What is the gubernaculum

Embryonic structure of connective tissue that pulls testes through the inguinal canal into the scrotum. May be confused with testes in cryptorchid NeoNates.

32

What is the scrotal ligament or gubernaculum testes

Secure testes to caudle end of scrotum which restricts the movement in the sac.

33

Describe cryptorchidism

Can be unilateral or bilateral. Neutering recommended. Often hereditary thus not suitable to use as breeders. Prone to testicular torsion and cancer.

34

If you have a bilaterally cryptorchid Kat what is the potential

The potential is for torsion of the spermatic cord which is the blood vessels and vas deferens in abdomen.

35

Can testicular torsion occur in normally descended males. And what does the patient presents with.

Yes it can occur but it is rare. Present with extreme abdominal pain. Tissue death of testes if restricted bloodflow. Can be fatal

36

What do the Leydig cells produce

Testosterone

37

What do the seminiferous tubule's produce

Spermatozoa

38

What are the leydig cells influenced by

LC SH

39

What are the functions of Sertoli cells

Have FSH receptors which control spermatogenesis and make some estrogen. Also support meiotic cells physically And nutritionally as they develop into spermatozoa. Protect sperm from immune system

40

Describe Sertoli cell tumors

Form of testicular cancer. More common in older dogs and cats. Affects only intact males and more common in cryptorchid than those with decended testes

41

What are the clinical signs of Sertoli cell tumors

Feminization of animal due to increased estrogen production, alopecia. Mammary gland growth, atrophy of penis, pendulous prepuce, attraction of other males,squatting to urinate

42

What is the treatment for Sertoli cell tumors

Castration and chemotherapy if it metastasized

43

What are testicular tumors do too

Neoplasia of Laidig or Sertoli cells

44

Describe Laidig cell tumors

Rare. Remain benign. No obvious symptoms other than testicular tumor.

45

What is the protective testicular capsule of dense regular connective tissue

Tunica p

46

What divides the testes into lobes of seminiferous tubule's

The septa

47

Describe the epididymis

Long convoluted tubule connecting efferent ducts of testes to the ductus deferens which is the site of storage and maturation of spermatozoa.

48

What is the ductus deferens

Part of the spermatic cord. Paired tubes composed of smooth muscle and columnar epithelium (simple or ciliated pseudostratified). Propels sperm out through the uterus.

49

What is the ampulla

Enlargement of vas deferens prior to joining the urethra. Not present in all species. Glandular in some. Contributes to semen.

50

describe the spermatic cord

Compose the vas deferens, lymphatic and blood vessels, nerves, muscles. Sheathed in connective tissue. Countercurrent heat exchange mechanism between network of veins and the testicular artery. Reduces heat loss from body core to keep testicles cooler.

51

What are the vaginal tunics

Two layers of connective tissue surrounding each testy. Derived from peritoneum during development.

52

What is the visceral vaginal tunic

Thin, transparent, covers testes. Derived from visceral peritoneum which is Serous tissue covering testes when they're developing in the abdominal cavity.

53

What is the parietal vaginal tunic

Fibers soccer around testes and cord. Derived from parietal peritoneum

54

What are considered the male accessory reproductive glands

Seminal vesicles, prostate gland, bulbourethral gland

55

What is the purpose of the accessory reproductive glands in males

Contribute fluid and substances to the sperm to form semen.
Alkaline substances to neutralize acidity of the female reproductive track,
fructose, electrolytes for energy and metabolic processes,
prostaglandins to stimulate contractions of female reproductive tract.

56

What is benign prostatic hyperplasia

Very common in uncastrated dogs 60% at five years old, 95% at nine years old. Hormonal problem due to androgen and estrogen ratio.

57

What are the clinical signs of benign prostatic hyperplasia

Difficulty in defecation, urination, hematuria

58

Castration

How do you treat benign prostatic hyperplasia

59

What are the functions of the urethra

Dual function. Carry urine and semen. During ejaculation sphincter closes off urine from the bladder

60

What tissue type is the urethra composed of

Transitional and stratified squamous epithelium

61

What are the two portions of their urethra

Pelvic urethra. Penile urethra

62

Describe the penis

Urethra passes through to deliver urine and semen

63

Describe the route of the penis

The base, connected to pelvis by connective tissue and muscle.

64

Describe the body of the penis

Composed of erectile connective tissue that fills with blood

65

Describe the glans of the penis

The tip of the penis, highly sensitive, shape varies among species.

66

What is the skin that covers the tip of the nonerect penis

Prepuce

67

Describe the erectile tissue in the body of the penis

Sinuses with fibrous connective tissue filled with blood upon stimulation. Blood flow in is greater than blood flow out equals direction. Veins are compressed

68

What is the os penis

Bone in the body of the penis dorsal to urethra

69

What are the bulbourethral glands

Become slowly enlarged during erection and tie the pair together even after ejaculation for several minutes

70

What is the sigmoid flexure in ruminants

S shaped curvature of non-erect penis. Held in Fletcher by retractor penis muscle. During erection penis straightens rather than enlarges

71

Why do we collect semen

For purpose of artificial insemination, for evaluating sperm quality witches shape motility and density.

72

How do we collect semen

Manual expression, artificial vagina, electroejaculation

73

What are the functions of the female reproductive system

Make female sex hormones, make ova, receive sperm from male, nurtured developing embryos, care for offspring after birth

74

How are the reproductive structures held in place

Peritoneal sheets of mesentery suspend the reproductive structures. Called broad ligaments

75

What is the suspensatory ligament

Suspends ovaries from body wall

76

What is the round ligament

Connects uterine horn to inguinal ring

77

What is the ovarian ligament

Canex the ovary to the uterus and horn

78

What do you have to ligate during the ovariohysterectomy before cutting the ligaments and removing the organs

The ovarian pedicle

79

Describe the ovaries

Paired organs in the abdominal cavity near kidneys. Size and shape varies among species. Site of oogenesis
Produce hormones

80

Where is estrogen made. What is its purpose

Estrogen is made by the developing follicle cells of Oocytes. Prepares female for breeding

81

Where is progesterone made. What is it for

Purge estrone is made by the corpus luteum. Prepares uterine lining for implementation and maintains uterine lining if implanted.

82

What do the oviducts consist of

The fallopian tubes and the uterine tubes

83

Describe the Oviducts

Paired, convoluted tubes extending cranially from uterus to ovaries. Not attached to ovaries.

84

What is the infundibulum

Funnel shaped opening at distal end of uterus

85

What do the fimbrae do

Catch ovum after ovulation

86

What are the oviducts composed of

Smooth muscle, ciliated columnar pseudostratified epithelium

87

What is the function of the oviduct

Transport egg to uterus. Site of fertilization

88

Describe the uterus

Muscular, thick walled Organ that's Y shaped and many uterine horns. Site of embryonic development. Forms part of the placenta along with the embryo

89

Describe the cervix

Thick muscular sphincter that separates uterus body from vagina. Normally closed except during estrus and parturition.

90

What are the three layers of the uterus

Perimetrium: visceral peritoneum serous tissue.
Myometrium: layers of smooth muscle. Endometrium: similar columnar epithelium with simple tubular glands, blood vessels.

91

What is the function of the uterus

Secrete mucus, nutrients for developing embryo

92

What is pyometra

Infection in the uterus

93

Describe the vagina

Mucosal lined elastic tube of smooth muscle which receives penis and sperm and extends from cervix to Volvo

94

Describe the Vulva

External opening to female reproductive tract

95

What is the vestibule

Entrance into the vagina

96

What is the labia

External lips, folds of skin

97

What is the clitoris

Sensitive tissue homologous to penis, on floor of vestibule.

98

What is the vesicular bulbs

Erectile tissue and mares and bitches

99

What is a prolapse of the vagina or uterus

Protrusion. Dropping of pelvic organs

100

What controls the ovarian cycle

Hormonally controlled cyclic cycles of ova development.

101

When does the ovarian cycle begin

Begins at sexual maturity and continues until death

102

What are the processes of the ovarian cycle

Ova development, ovulation, colitis, fertilization, implantation

103

List the ovarian cycle from start to finish

Several primary follicles containing primary oocyte begin to develop. One or more will develop into the graafian follicle containing the secondary Oocyte. Follicles rupture causing ovulation. Ruptured follicle's develop into corpus luteum.

104

List the six steps of follicle development

Primordial follicle.
Primary follicle.
Secondary follicle – late to secondary follicle.
Mature Vesicular follicle.
Follicle ruptures.
Corpus luteum forms

105

Where is the GNRH hormone released from, why is it released and what are the target cells

It is released from the hypothalamus in response to environmental cues. Target cells are the anterior pituitary gland

106

Where does the FSH hormone come from and what does it do

Comes from the anterior pituitary gland and stimulates follicle development

107

Who produces estrogen and what does it do

The follicle cells produce estrogen. It stimulates secretion of luteinizing hormone from anterior pituitary gland. Causes negative feedback on follicle-stimulating hormone.

108

What hormone released triggers ovulation

Luteinizing hormone

109

What produce progesterone

The corpus luteum

110

What does progesterone do

Stimulates female mating behaviour.
Prepares endometrium for implantation.
Inhibits GNRH.

111

What happens with progesterone if no fertilization occurs

Corpus luteum breaks down and GNRH is no longer inhibited.

112

What happens to the endometrium if there's no progesterone

It diminishes

113

What hormones does the uterus produce

Prostaglandins

114

What do prostaglandins do to the corpus luteum

It's deteriorates thus decreases progesterone levels

115

What does the embryo do with the prostaglandins

Blocks release of prostaglandins from uterus thus allowing CL to continue to release progesterone and maintain endometrium until a placenta is formed

116

Describe pseudopregnancy

Common in dogs not cats. Corpus luteum remains for 6-7 weeks after ovulation. High progesterone levels stimulate pregnancy changes (eg. Mammary gland development, maternal behaviour). High progesterone levels affect some dogs more than others.

117

What is estrus

Time when females will be most receptive to males. Time when she is most likely to get pregnant

118

What is polyesteous

Cycle continuously throughout year if no pregnancy (cattle, swine)

119

What animals are seasonally polyesteous

Horses, sheep, cats

120

What is diestrous

2 cycles per year (dogs)

121

What is monoestrus

1 cycle per year (foxes and minks)

122

What is seasonally polyesteous animals affected by

Cycle affected by length of day (pineal gland, melatonin)

123

What do short day breeders do

Cycle during fall/winter (Sheeps, goats)

124

What are long day breeders

Cycle during spring/summer (horses,cats, hamsters, ferrets)

125

Describe the monoestrus cycle

Anestrus➡️proestrus➡️estrus➡️ovulation➡️implantation➡️gestation➡️parturition➡️lactation

126

Describe the polyesteous cycle:

Proestrus➡️estrus➡️ovulation➡️implantation➡️gestation➡️parturition➡️lactation

127

What is the length of time spent in each stage dependant on

Species and type of estrus cycle

128

What is Anestrus

Period of ovarian inactivity, seen in seasonally polyestrous, diestrous and monoestrus females. Polyesteous females don't have Anestrus

129

What is proestrus

Period of follicular development (due to FSH secretion), increasing estrogen production, physical changes to reproductive tract lining (thickening of uterine lining, start of keratinization of vaginal epithelium)
Period of sexual activity
Reproductive tract in under influence of estrogen

130

What is estrus

Period when female is most receptive to male; high estrogen stimulates behavioural changes (vocalizations, flagging tail)

131

Describe the changes that estrus causes

Decreasing FSH levels
Vaginal epithelium is cornified
Ovulation usually occurs in end of period
Some species are induced ovulators and will remain in estrus if no coitus (cats, mink, ferrets)

132

What is monoestrus

Period after ovulation, development of corpus luteum, Progesterone production.

133

What changes come from monoestrus

Reproductive tract is under influence of progesterone
Females no longer interested in males
Endometrium is thick and juicy
Declining cornification of vaginal epithelium

134

What is special about monoestrus

Sometimes called diestrous and lumped in with next phase in cats and horses

135

What is diestrus

Luteal phase; corpus luteum has reached maximum size

136

What changes happen in diestrus

137

How do you determine what stage of estrus a female is in

Vulva swelling + discharge
Thickness of vagina + uterine wall
Vaginal cytology

138

In a vaginal cytology what can you see

Wbc, rbc, bacteria.
Changes in squamous epithelial cells: cytoplasmic ratio, size of cells

139

Which cells are cornification

Anucleur and superficial

140

What color are cornified cells

dark purple

141

What cells are non cornified

Intermediate and parabasal.

142

What color are non cornified cells

Light purple

143

How do you remember the cornification

Pisa (non cornified to cornified)

144

Describe the transport of sperm

Copulation(coitus) ➡️ ejaculation. The sperm is deposited in cranial portion of vagina. Except for horse and pig.

145

What is transport aided by

Sperm motility (flagella powered by ATP)
Uterine contractions (due to oxytocin)

146

When is female the most receptive for sperm

Female is most receptive just prior to ovulation so sperm should should be in oviducts and ready to fertilize by the time of egg release

147

What is capacitation

Series of changes occurring in sperm to allow fertilization

148

What changes happen in sperm

Increase in sugar metabolism, ATP made.
Sheds proteins and fats that cover it
Release enzyme from acrosome which will allow sperm to digest through layers surrounding ovum

149

How many sperm can fertiliZe an egg

1

150

What happens in the zone pellucida

Hardens once 1st sperm binds to ovum receptors, prevents other sperm from entering

151

Where does fertilization occur

In the oviduct

152

What do male and female haploid pronuclei join to form

A diploid ️nucleus

153

What is a zygote

Single diploid cell

154

What is cleavage

Embryonic cell division: mitosis of zygote
Increased in cell # but not size: rapid division and hardened zona pellucida prevents expansion of cells

155

What is a morula

Solid ball of cells

156

What is a blastocyst

Hollow ball of cells

157

Describe implantation in multiparous

Blastocytes distribute themselves equally between uterine horns

158

What happens to blastocytes in zona pellucida

Break out of hardened zona pullicida invade hypertrophied endometrium using digestive enzymes.

159

When does incubation happen in dogs

14-20 days in bitches

160

When does incubation happen in cats

11-16 days

161

When does incubation happen

9 days in humans

162

What does the placenta do

Nourishes the developing embryo

163

Describe the inner cell mass (future embryo)

Forms 3 germ layers by process of gastrulation
Germ layers form embryo and some of extra embryonic membranes

164

What is a trophoblast (future placenta)

Develops into some of the extra embryonic membrane.
In mammals these membranes become the placenta and the umbilical cord

165

What do germ layers (embryonic tissue) form

All tissues/organs of animal

166

What is an ectoderm

Outer layer of cells. Forms nervous system and epidermis.

167

What is neurolation

Formation of nervous system

168

What is mesoderm

Middle layer of cells.form most organs (dermis, heart, bones and muscle)

169

What is endoderm

Inner layer of cells that forms the lining of digestive, respiratory and urogenital tract

170

What are extra embryonic layer membranes

Tissues that don't form the embryo but are important to its development

171

What is the placenta

Formed from chorion (extra embryonic membrane)
Attached to uterine wall
Site of exchange of gas, nutrients waste between fetal and maternal capillary bed.

172

What does umbilical cord form from

Yolk sac and allantois.

173

How many umbilical arteries carry deO2 blood away from fetus

2

174

How many umbillical veins carry O2 blood to fetus

1

175

What is a diffuse placental attachment

Easy to shed and detaches easily (horses and pigs) from uterus

176

What is cotyledonary placental attachment

Many attachments (placentomes) difficult to shed and retained placenta (ruminants)

177

What is zonary placental attachment

Band of attached tissue that is easily shed (cats, dogs)

178

What is the discoid placental attachment

Disk attachment site (primates and rodents)

179

What is pregnancy

Gestational period, time between implantation and parturition. Divided into trimesters.

180

What is the first trimester called

Embryo

181

What is the 2nd, 3rd trimester considered

Fetus