Chapter - Respiratory System Flashcards Preview

Anatomy And Physiology 2 > Chapter - Respiratory System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter - Respiratory System Deck (132):
0

What is the main function of the respiratory system

Supplies body cells with O2 and co2

1

What is external respiration

Pulmonary respiration

2

What is internal respiration

Cellular respiration

3

What is pulmonary ventilation

Breathing

4

What is inspiration

Movement of air into lungs

5

What is expiration

Movement of air out of lungs

6

What is involved in pulmonary ventilation

1. O2 and co2 exchange between lungs and capillaries
2. O2 and co2 transported in blood
3. O2 and co2 exchange between systemic capillaries and tissues

7

What is vocalization (phonation)

Vibration of vocal cords stretched across larynx

8

What is olfaction

Olfactory cells (chemoreceptors) bind molecules; nerve impulses are interpreted as smells by olfactory lobes of brain

9

What is thermoregulation

Warm air by entering respiratory tract; evaporative cooling at mucosa

10

What is the acid base balance in blood

Co2 amount dissolved in blood

11

Which structures are considered part of the upper respiratory tract

Nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea

12

What are the nares

Nostrils; external openings that lead into nasal passages

13

What is the nasal septum

Divides left + right side

14

What are turbinate bones

Increases surface area inside passage divide each passage into three smaller ones ; nasal meatus

15

What cell type is the nasal passage lined with

Ciliates pseudostratified columnar epithelium

16

What secrets mucus

Mucosa glands and goblet cells

17

What is the function of mucus

Warm and humidify and filter air

18

How does mucus work

Mucus escalator traps debris and moves it cranial u to pharynx to be swallowed

19

What does inflammation do to cilia

Reduces effectiveness

20

What are the sinuses

Spaces within skull out pockets of nasal passages. Lining continuous with that of nasal passages.

21

What are the sinuses named after

They are named after skull bones where they are located

22

What are the two sinuses

Frontal sinuses and maxillary sinuses

23

What is sinusitis

Inflammation of sinuses

24

What is sinusitis in dogs commonly caused by

Carnassial tooth abscesses

25

What is the pharynx

Common passage for digestive and respiratory tracts -> choking

26

Where are lymphatic tissues (tonsils) present

In naso and oropharynx

27

What is the larynx

The voice box. Composed of segments of hyaline cartilage. Supported by hyoid bone

28

What does the epiglottis cover

Opening to larynx (glottis) while swallowing

29

What are vocal chords

Connective tissue stretched against the glottis. Sounds produced by differences in tension and vibration

30

What is laryngeal paralysis in dogs

Inability to abduct vocal folds due to muscle or nerve problem. Either congenital or acquired. But often idiopathic

31

What are the signs of laryngeal paralysis in dogs

Coughing, distressful noises, exercise intolerance, thermal regulation problems

32

What is the treatment for laryngeal process and dogs

Surgical tieback of one vocal fold

33

What is roaring in horses

It is the laryngeal hemiplegia which is a half paralysis. Congenital degeneration of left laryngeal nerve which controls muscles to tighten left arytenoid cartilage

34

What is the treatment of laryngeal hemiplegia in horses

Surgery

35

What is the trachea

The windpipe

36

What is the windpipe composed of

Composed of C shaped rings of hyaline cartilage. C closed dorsally by smooth muscle and lined with ciliated mucosa

37

What does the trachea divide into

2 bronchi at base of heart which is called bifurcation

38

What is a tracheal collapse in dogs

Hyaline cartilage rings weaken and then flatten which causes dyspnea

39

What is ET tube intubation

The insertion of flexible tubes through the glottis and into the trachea. Provides open airway for artificial ventilation or administration of inhalant anesthetics. Reduce his risk of aspiration during anesthesia

40

Is it possible to intubate cows and horses

No

41

What is the laryngoscope

Using cats and dogs to visualize the glottis before ET tube insertion

42

What is special about cats in terms of ET tube intubation

Cats require local anesthetic due to sensitivity of glottis. Reflects causes laryngeal spasms

43

Describe the train of the lower respiratory tract

Bronchi to bronchioles to alveoli

44

What are the bronchi similar to in structure

The trachea

45

Describe bronchioles

No cartilage, fewer goblet cells and cilia

46

Why is there increased smooth muscle in the lower respiratory tract

Bronchodilation versus bronchoconstriction

47

What do terminal branches end in

Alveolar ducts

48

Describe Alveoli

Sacs of simple squamous epithelium. Microscopic, hundreds of millions of alveoli. Surrounded by Capillaries and elastic fibers which are the site of gas exchange. Produce surfactant to reduce the surface tension and pores equalize air pressure in the sacs.

49

What protects the alveoli from pathogens

Macrophages and antimicrobial proteins

50

How many layers do gases have to pass through in the Alveoli

2 simple squamous epithelial layers

51

What is asthma in cats

The lining of the bronchioles become irritated due to allergens cold temperatures and airborne chemicals. Causes increased mucus production and bronchial construction

52

Describe the symptoms of asthma in cats

Dyspnea cyanosis and wheezing

53

What is the treatment for asthma in cats

Removal of irritants, anti-inflammatories and bronchodilators

54

What is asthma in horses

Chronic obstructive respiratory disorder.

55

What are the signs of asthma in horses

Dyspnea cyanosis coughing mucus production and heave line on ventral surface. Most commonly seen in stabled horses due to increased exposure to dust. Treatment similar to cats

56

What are the lungs

In the thoracic cavity they surround the heart and the mediastinum.

57

Where does the base of the lung rest

The diaphragm

58

Where is the apex of the lungs

The cranial end

59

What is the Hilium

Concavity on mediastinal surface. It is the site for the entry and exit of blood vessels bronchi lymphatic vessels and nerves

60

How are the lobes of the lung divided

They're divided into lobes based on the bronchi. The left has two lobes, the cranial and the caudal. The right has four lobes the cranial, middle, caudal and accessory

61

What is special about the lobes of the lung in the horse

Horses all have only one lobe per side except for the right side which also has an accessory lobe

62

Describe an upper respiratory tract infection

Involves infection of nasal passages, pharynx, larynx, trachea. Easier to expel excessive mucus by coughing and sneezing

63

Describe lower respiratory tract infection

Can be more life-threatening due to difficulty and expelling mucus. Airway obstruction more common

64

What is bronchitis

Infection of the bronchi epithelia

65

What is pneumonia

Infection of small bronchioles and alveoli

66

Prior to birth describe the lungs

Fetal lungs are nonfunctional and filled with amnionic fluid. Tissue consistency is like the liver. Reduced pulmonary circulation

67

Describe the lungs at birth

Alveoli filled with air in first breaths, spongy consistency. Surfactants produced late in gestation which prevent alveoli from collapsing

68

What is the pleurae

Thin, double layered serosa of simple squamous epithelium.

69

Where does the parietal pleura line

Lines thoracic walls, cranial aspect of diaphragm, around the heart and between the lungs

70

Where does the visceral pleura line

Covers external lungs surface. Plural fluid fills the slit-like pleural cavity which provides lubrication and surface tension which assists in expansion and recoil during breathing.

71

What is the diaphragm

Flat, dome shaped skeletal muscle which divides the thoracic and abdominal cavities. Attached to ribs and innervated by phrenic nerve.

72

What does contraction and relaxation of the diaphragm do

Changes the volume of the thorax which affects the pressure which causes ventilation

73

What is a diaphragmatic hernia

Tear or hole in diaphragm. Abdominal organs enter thorax. Congenital or caused by trauma and fixed by surgery

74

What is pneumothorax

collapsed lung. Accumulation of air in plural cavity prevents full inflation of lungs. Symptoms are dyspnea, tachypnea, tachycardia

75

What are the types of pneumothorax

Trumatic versus spontaneous. Open versus closed. Traumatic pneumothorax are usually open whereaa spontaneous are always closed and are usually due to lung disorders

76

What is pleural effusion

Accumulation of excess fluid in the plural cavity due to production and removal problem.

77

What are the causes of pleural effusion

Heart worms, liver disease, cardiac failure, cancer, pyothorax

78

What is the treatment for Pleural effusion

Thoracocentesis. Need to treat underlying problem. Examination of aspirate can help in diagnosis

79

What is exercised induced pulmonary hemorrhage

Bleeding in lungs. Hemorrhage of pulmonary capillaries. Common to race horses racing caramels, greyhounds and humans. Likely due to high pulmonary blood pressure or pounding on hard racing surfaces. Can affect performance and be fatal

80

What is epistaxis

Hemorrhage of nasal cavity vessels

81

What is the treatment for exercised induced pulmonary hemorrhage

Diuretic which reduces blood pressure. Illegal except for use in USA and Canada

82

What is intrapulmonary pressure

The pressure in alveoli. Which fluctuates with breathing. Eventually equalizes with atmospheric pressure during ventilation

83

What is intrapleural pressure

Pressure in plural cavity which also fluctuates with breathing. Always negative relative to others

84

Describe the partial vacuum in the thoracic cavity

Partial vacuum exists in thoracic cavity to keep the lungs inflated and pull out against thoracic wall so intrapulmonary volume fluctuates with thoracic cavity volume. Assists in Venous return of blood to the heart

85

What are the highs and lows of atmospheric pressure

0 MM HG to 760 MM HG

86

What are the highs and lows of intrapleural pressure

4 MM HG to 756 MM HG

87

What are the highs and lows of intrapulmonary pressure

0 MM HG to 760 MM HG

88

What is inspiration

Inhalation

89

What is expiration

Exhalation

90

What are inspiration and expiration considered

Mechanical processes that depend on volume changes in thoracic cavity

91

What happens when the volume changes in the thoracic cavity

Volume changes cause pressure changes in pressure changes cause gas flow to equalize pressure

92

What is Boyles law

Pressure and volume are inversely proportional

93

Describe inhalation

Diaphragm contracts. External intercostal muscles contract. Rib cage elevates. Increased thoracic cavity volume. Increased intrapulmonary volume. Decreased intrapulmonary pressure.

94

Describe exhalation

Diaphragm relaxes. External intercostal muscles relax and abdominals contract. Rib cage drops. Decrease in thoracic cavity volume. Decrease in intrapulmonary volume. Increase in intrapulmonary pressure.

95

What is the tidal volume

Volume of air inspired an expired in one breath. Varies with need

96

What is minute volume

Volume of air inspired and expired in one minute. Needs to match perfusion to alveolar capillaries.

97

What is perfusion

Blood flow

98

What is inspiratory reserve volume

Volume of air inspired above that in tidal volume

99

What is expiratory reserve volume

Volume of air expired above that in tidal volume

100

What is vital capacity

Tidal volume plus inspiratory reserve volume plus expiratory reserve volume

101

What is residual volume

Volume of air left after forcing expiration. The amount left in alveoli

102

What is the total lung capacity

Tidal volume plus inspiratory reserve volume plus expiratory reserve volume plus residual volume

103

What are the two things that diffusion of gases in Lungs and body tissues involve

Concentration gradients of gases. Physical properties of gases. Moves from high to low concentration

104

What is partial pressure

Pressure exerted by each gas in the mixture. Directly proportional to its percentage in the mixture

105

What is the total pressure exerted by mixture of gases

The sum of pressures exerted by each gas

106

When gas mixture comes in contact with liquid

Each gas dissolves into proportion to its partial pressure. At equilibrium, partial pressures into phases will be equal

107

What does the amount of gas that will be dissolved dependent on

The molecule. CO2 is 20 times more soluble in water then 02. Little n2 dissolves in water

108

Increasing pressure does what

Increases solubility

109

Describe the pressure gradient for 02 in lungs

Steep partial pressure gradient. oxygen diffuses down concentration gradient from alveoli to blood

110

What is the partial pressure of venous blood

40 mm Hg

111

What is the partial pressure in the alveolars

104 mm Hg

112

What happens when equilibrium is reached

No more net diffusion

113

Describe the partial pressure gradient for CO2 in lungs

Partial pressure gradient less steep. Though gradient is not as steep, CO2 diffuses in equal amounts with oxygen. CO2 is 20 times more soluble in plasma than oxygen.

114

What is the partial pressure gradient for co2 in venous blood

45 mm Hg

115

What is the partial pressure for co2 in alveolars

40 mm Hg

116

What percent of oxygen transport is dissolved in plasma

1.5%

117

What percent of oxygen transport is carried by hemoglobin in red blood cells

98.5%. Max of four o2 molecules per hemoglobin

118

What is oxygen saturation dependent on

The pressure of O2, temperatures, blood pH, pressure of CO2 and competing molecules

119

How is Co2 transported

7-10% in plasma
20% in hemoglobin
70% transported as bicarbonate ions in plasma and in red blood cells cytoplasm

120

Scribe the influence of CO2 on blood pH

Carbonic acid equals bicarbonate buffer system. Resist change in blood pH. If H+ concentration in blood rises, excess H+ is removed by combining with HC03. If H+ concentration begins to drop, H2CO3 this disassociates releasing H+

121

Changes in what affect blood pH

Respiratory rate and depth

122

With slow shallow breaths what happens to the amount of CO2 in blood and the blood pH

Increased concentration of CO2 in blood and decreased blood pH

123

In rapid deep breath what happens to amount of CO2 in blood and blood pH

Decreased number of CO2 in blood and increased pH

124

Describe the control of ventilation

Skeletal muscles are used in ventilation but conscious thought not required. Involuntary control can be overridden by voluntary control. Controlled by respiratory center in brainstem (Medulla and pons). Influenced by mechanical factors such as stretch receptors in lungs preventing over inflation.

125

Chemoreceptors allow for what

Monitoring of O2, CO2 and pH levels and blood

126

What are the aorta and carotid arteries sensitive to

Hypoxia

127

What is the medulla oblongata sensitive to

Sensitive to hypercapnia and acidemia. H+ binds to chemo receptors

128

What are short-term mechanisms to increase oxygenation

Increased respiration rate and depth. Increased heart rate. Increase core body temperature. Splenic contractions

129

What are long-term mechanisms to increase oxygenation

erythropoiesis

130

What is hyperventilation

Creased depth and rate of breathing that exceeds bodies need to remove CO2. Decreased blood CO2 levels which cause hypocapnia

131

What is apnea

Breathing cessation from abnormally low PCO2