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Flashcards in Lab Exam 3 Deck (85):
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What are the three methods of urine collection

Free catch (nosorb), cystocentesis, catheterization

1

Which urine collection method is performed by the client

Free catch

2

Which method has the highest risk of lower urinary tract contamination

Free catch

3

Which method has the lowest risk of lower urinary tract contamination

Cystocentesis

4

How quickly should urine samples be analyzed

Usually immediately or max 3hrs if refrigerated

5

What can occur with refrigerated samples and why should they be warmed to room temperature

Crystals

6

Why do you subdivide the urine sample

To stain one slide, unstain the other, keep 5cc for idexx

7

What is the advantage for free catch urine collection

Easy way to get

8

What is the disadvantage for free catch urine collection

Animal and human involved. Only capable on dogs

9

What is the advantage to nosorb

On their own terms

10

What is the disadvantage to nosorb

Heavily contaminated

11

What is the advantage to manual expression

Manually remove urine from bladder

12

What is the disadvantage to manual expression

It upsets them. Urine is contaminated

13

What is the advantage to catheterization

Sterile and for cultures

14

What is the disadvantage for catheterization

Irritates the urethra and for females you have to use a scope at the vestibule to visualize the urethra.

15

What is the advantage to Cystocentesis

No contamination

16

What is the disadvantage to Cystocentesis

Can perforate the bladder

17

How would you insert the catheter into a male dog

Go dorsal to the oss penis. You need hibitane, catheter, syringe and lube

18

Describe how you do cystocentesis

Dog lays on their back. It is in the caudal abdomen. Avoid hitting the vena cava. On the back the bladder is forced to go dorsally. Insert needle at 45° angle for bladder shrinkage.

19

What are the three parts to a physical exam of urine

Color, transparency, smell

20

What is the normal color of urine

Light yellow

21

Why might urine appear red or pink in color

Due to the blood in the urine

22

Why does urine appear orange in color

Due to high concentration

23

Urine is usually clear. What may be present in the urine to give it a cloudy appearance

Cells

24

What does urine specific gravity measure

The concentration of urine

25

What instruments are used to measure the urine specific gravity

Refractometer

26

If the urine specific gravity is equal to that of the glomerulus filtrate, the sample is considered to be _____

Isotonic

27

If the urine specific gravity is less than the Glomerulus filtrate what is the solution considered to be

Hypotonic

28

If the urine specific gravity is greater than the glomerulus filtrate what is a solution considered to be

Hypertonic

29

Which animals are likely to have a more acidic pH due to their diet. Carnivores herbivores?

Carnivores

30

Why is it important to also include white blood cells in the sediment exam

To see if there is the presence of an infection

31

What is the UPC ratio test

Test for urine, protein, creatinine

32

What is protein in the urine called

Proteinuria

33

What is hematuria

Blood in urine

34

What is hemoglobinuria

Hemoglobin in the blood

35

What is a pneumocystogram

Where they inject air Into bladder to find stones or tumors

36

What does flocculent mean

Turbid

37

What does the specific gravity test

Measures dissolved solids compared to water

38

What is the normal pH for cat urine and USG

6.2-6.4 and 1.060 but should be around 1.030.

39

What is the normal USG for dogs

1.025-1.050

40

What does having bacteria In the urine do

Makes it more basic

41

What are the three formed elements that can be found in urine sediment

Red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets

42

What cell types can be seen in a microscopic exam of urine

Bacterial, red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, epithelial cells

43

What is dystocia

Difficult birth

44

What is A cryptorchid

An undecenced testicle

45

What is a placenta

The afterbirth

46

What is parturition

Giving birth

47

What is vivoparous

Live bearer

48

What is oviparous

Egg bearer

49

What is a Neo Nate

Newborn

50

What is lactation

Milk production

51

What is meconium

First poop

52

What is a breech delivery

Tell first presentation of fetus

53

What is orchitis

Inflammation of the testicles

54

What is ectopic pregnancy

Pregnancy outside the womb

55

What is metritis

Inflammation of the uterus

56

What is mastitis

Inflammation of the memory glands

57

What is supranumerary teats

Extra Teets

58

What is a uterine prolapse

Protrusion of uterus

59

What is pneumovagina

Air filled vagina

60

What is oligospermia

Low sperm count

61

What is hermaphroditism

Both sexual organs

62

What is Prostatomegaly

Enlarged prostate

63

What is an orchidectomy

Removal of the testicles

64

What is ovariohysterectomy

Removal of ovaries and uterus

65

What is fetotomy

Cutting into a dead fetus

66

What is Episiotomy

Cut skin to enlarge the vagina

67

What is c section

Surgical removal of fetus

68

What is amniocentesis

Removal of amniotic fluid

69

During which stage of estrus are the progesterone levels the highest

Diestrus

70

During which stage of estrus is there a lutenizing hormone surge

Proestrus

71

During which stage is there bloody discharge

Proestrus

72

During which stage is the female in standing heat

Estrus

73

How long is the estrous cycle of a rat. How do you check for pregnancy and a rat

Four days. Do vaginal cytology to check for timed pregnancy

74

How long is a dogs estrous cycle

Six months. Do vaginal cytology to check for breeding purposes

75

What materials are necessary for artificial insemination

Catheter, semen, syringe, extender

76

What is brucellosis

A venerial disease. Zoonosis, causes abortion and infertility

77

What is a split heat

Heat with no ovulation and Low progesterone

78

Describe how to do a vaginal cytology on a rat

Insert pipette into vagina, squish sailing out, drawback in, check for Milky White color. Put drop on the slide and let it air dry. When it dries stain it.

79

What materials are necessary for a rat vaginal cytology

Gauze, gloves, pipette, Saline, slide, lube

80

How old is a dog when it has its first heat

5 to 7 months

81

What external features show the signs of estrus in a dog and cat

Mucousy secretions, large Vulva and rubbery.

82

Do you inject all sperm when doing artificial insemination

No. Don't inject all sperm, keeps him to inspect sperm quality motility and percent life to dead sperm

83

When you have frozen semen what do you have to do

Surgical insemination

84

When you have chilled sperm what do you have to do

Catheter insemination