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Flashcards in Lab Exam 2 Deck (128):
0

What is epitaxis

Nose bleed

1

What is abnormal accumulation of gas in the pleural cavity

Pneumothorax

2

What is abnormal accumulation of blood in the pleural cavity

Hemothorax

3

What is pus in the pleural cavity

Pyothorax

4

What is abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pleural cavity

Pleural effusion

5

What is abnormally rapid respiratory rate

Tachypnea

6

What is paralysis of the voice box

Laryngoplasia

7

What is a chronic allergy condition causing bronchoconstriction

Bronchitis

8

What is inhalation of foreign substance into respiratory tract

Aspiration

9

What is abnormally rapid, deep breaths that may lead to hypocapnia

Decreased CO2

10

What is rhinitis

Inflammation of mucus membranes in nose

11

What is uri

Upper respiratory tract infection

12

What is aphonation

Cannot produce sounds with vocal folds

13

What is acute bronchitis

Intense inflammation of the bronchi

14

What is pulmonary edema

Liquid/air in lungs

15

What is rhinorrhea

Runny nose

16

What is Tachypnea

Fast breathing

17

What is copd

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder

18

What is antitissuant

Anti cough drug

19

What is lobectomy

Surgical removal of a lobe of an organ

20

What is spirometer

Measures volume of air inspired/expired by lungs

21

What is pharyngoplasty

Change shape and function of soft palate and pharynx

22

What is a puncture of the chest wall for the purpose of removing removing fluid or gas

Thoracocentesis

23

What instrument is used to examine the voice box during intubation

Laryngoscope

24

What is difficulty urinating

Dysuria

25

What is complete suppression of urination

Anuria

26

What is excessive urination

Polyuria

27

What is crf

Chronic renal failure

28

What is arf

Acute renal failure

29

What is uti

Urinary tract infection

30

What is pu/pd

Polyuria/polydipsia

31

What is glucouria

Lots of sugar in urine

32

What is hematuria

Blood in the urine

33

What is pyuria

Pus in the urine

34

What is cystitis

Inflammation of the urinary bladder

35

What is nephritis

Inflammation of the kidneys

36

What is ureterolith

Stone in ureter

37

What is surgical puncture of the bladder to collect urine

Cystocentesis

38

What is a visual examination of the bladder using fiberoptic instrument

Cystoscopy

39

What is examination of urine and its components

Urinalysis

40

What is cystoplasty

Reconstruction of bladder

41

What is nephrectomy

Removal of a kidney

42

What is lithotripsy

Destruction of stones

43

What is diuretic

Prevents reabsorption of water

44

How do you histologically identify ureters

Transitional epithelium, smooth muscle and adipose

45

How do you histologically identify urinary bladder

Smooth muscle and connective tissue

46

How do you histologically identify kidneys

Transitional and columnar epithelium.
Cortex: tubules
Medulla: columnar epithelium

47

How do you histologically identify anemia

Lots of wbc
Polychromasia

48

How do you histologically identify regenerative anemia

Lots of immature rbc (reticulocytes)

49

How do you histologically identify hemobartinella

Small circles on edge of rbc that destroys them

50

How do you histologically identify lymphoma

Lots of wbc ( Possible 2 nuclei )
Lots of malformed rbc

51

How do you histologically identify pyometra

Lots of toxic neutrophils
Rbc are rouleau and look like vines

52

How do you histologically identify lungs

Smooth muscle, lamina propria, bronchial epithelium

53

How do you histologically identify nasal epithelium

Hyaline cartilage

54

What are the characteristics of a erythrocytes

Biconcave disks

55

What are the characteristics of leukocytes

Nucleated

56

What are the characteristics of neutrophils

2-6 lobes in nucleus. lavender granules

57

what are the characteristics of lymphocytes

Circular nuclei and blue cytoplasm

58

what are the characteristics of monocytes

pale blue cytoplasm and kidney shaped nucleus

59

what are the characteristics of Eosinophils

bilobed nuclear's and red granules

60

what are the characteristics of basophils

deep purple nucleus with 1 to 2 constrictions. Purpleish black granules

61

what are the characteristics of thrombocytes

fragments

62

describe band neutrophils

has a curved nuclear us. Is a young neutrophil

63

describe hypersegmented neutrophils

have 6+ lobes of their nucleus

64

describe reticulocytes

immature red blood cells with no nucleus

65

what information does a PVC give you

measures level of packed red blood cells and can show anemia.

66

why do you prepare two hematocrit tubes instead of one

in case one of them leaks during the centrifuge process you still have one. And to balance the centrifuge

67

what must you do to the end of the hematocrit tube

put a plug with the Clay

68

what is the refractometer used for

used to measure total protein

69

what is aggulation

clumping of cells

70

what is rouleaux

stacking of cells

71

what is hypochromasia

low color

72

what is polychromasia

mutiple colors

73

what is hyperchromasia

dark staining

74

what is microcytes

unusually small rbc

75

what are macrocytes

unusually large rbc

76

what are normocytes

normal sized rbc

77

what are spherocytes

spherelike cells

78

what are schistocytes

fragmented portion of red blood cells

79

what are target cells

dark ring surrounding dark central spots

80

what are acanthocytes

spiky cell membrane

81

What are echinocytes

Abnormal cell membrane, many evenly shaped projections

82

What are Heinz bodies

Rbc composed of denatured hemoglobin

83

What are reticulocytes

Immature rbc

84

What are basophilic stippling

Have small dots (ribosomes) at periphery. May indicate lead poisoning

85

What is a CBC

Complete blood count. Most commonly ordered hematology test. Quantification and morphological assessment of red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Can be done with an automated hematology analyzer or manually by looking at blood filma

85

What are some blood characteristic tests that can only be done manually

Morphology, looking for parasites

85

What is the hematocrit for dogs

40-59

85

What is the normal hematocrit for cats

29-50

85

How do you name decrease in 'phils' and 'cytes'

openia

85

How do you name increases in 'phils'

'Philia'

85

What is a decrease in all cell lines known as

Pancytopenia

85

What is an increase of red blood cells known as

Polycythemia

85

What is a decrease in red blood cells known as ?

Anemia

85

What is an increAse in white blood cells mean

Leukocytosis

85

What does a decrease in white blood cells mean

Leukopenia

85

What is the disadvantage to using automated counter

Can get misleading information. Could give low red blood cell values if there is a lot of agglutination. Cannot count all the cells in the clump.

85

What do you use to stain a reticulocyte

Methylene blue

85

What are the inclusions on the reticulocyte

Rna

86

Why is counting the reticulocytes useful

Can indicate whether anemia is due to low erythropoiesis or hemolysis ( ie. Production problem vs destruction problem)

87

What is needed for an abnormality to be considered significant

Need to find it in every field of view examined

88

What are the types of abnormalities

Color
Distribution
SiZe - anisocytosis
Shape - poikilocytosis
Inclusions

89

What is hypochromasia

Large central pallor, decreased Hemoglobin, could be due to iron deficiency.

90

What are polychromatophils

Make up less than 1% of red blood cells in circulation. Larger in size, purpleish, still have nuclear material. Rare in the horses

91

What is agglutination

Clumping of a erythrocytes. Often due to an immune mediated disease. Caused by the cross-linking of antibodies. Cells held together firmly.

92

What is Rouleaux

Coins. Can be an indicator of some disease, some Rouleaux present in nonruminant's especially cats and horses. Caused by weak electrostatic attraction's on cell surface. Cells held together loosely. Saline agglutination test can help distinguish between them. High amounts of plasma proteins can increase rouleaux.

93

What are Heinz bodies

Normally found in cats. Less than 10% of red blood cells. Pathological finding in other species. Result of oxidative cell injury such as red Maple poisoning in horses.

94

How do you do a white blood cell differential

Count 100 white blood cells and keep track of each type seen

95

Describe the difference between dog red blood cells and cat and horse red blood cells

Dog red blood cells are larger and tend to have a more central Paller than cats and horses. Cat red blood cells appear more spherical than horses and dogs

96

Describe the difference between eosinophils and heterophils

Eosinophils are slightly larger than heterophils. The nucleus is less segmented and the cytoplasmic granules are larger, round and bright red compared to heterophils. Granules usually completely fill the cytoplasm.

97

Which dog blood type is most anti-genic

DEA 1.1 positive. Antigen is present in 40% of the population. Universal recipient

98

What is special about DEA 1.1 negative blood type in dogs

No antigen present and it is a universal donor

99

What does major cross matching do

Recipient plasma tested with donor rbc

100

What is minor crossmatching

Recipient rbc tested with donor plasma

101

Is the first transfusion of the wrong blood type usually a problem

Nope. It's the ones after that

102

What is IMHA

Immune mediated hemolytic anemia. In this autoimmune disorder antibodies and macrophages attack the red blood cells changing their shape and reducing their total number

103

What are echinocytes

Spiky cells

104

What can cause echinocytosis

Rattlesnake venom, improper blood preparation

105

How do you name an increase in cytes

Cytosis

106

What are the three types of intubation tube

Pvc
Red rubber
Silicon

107

What is the disadvantage of red rubber

It is flexible, needs a stylet in it to guide it.

108

WhAt is the disadvantage to pvc intubation

It is really hard and might cause tissue damage

109

What is the advantage to using silicone tubes

You can see respiration Cuz they're clear

110

How do you measure the size of the intubation tube

From clavicle to muzzle

111

What are blue top tubes used for

Coagulation tests

112

What does the green blood tube have

Heparin

113

What is in purple top tubes

EDTA

114

What is in tiger top tubes

Seperator gel (like yellow tops)