Chapter 8 - Cardiovascular System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 8 - Cardiovascular System Deck (62):
0

What is the function of the cardiovascular system

It carries the products of other systems

1

What is a heart in the cardiovascular system

It is the pump

2

What is the vessels in the cardiovascular system

The transport tubes

3

What is blood in the cardiovascular system

Carries nutrients wastes and gases and hormones, defensive proteins and cells

4

Where is the heart located

In the thoracic cavity in the mediastinum. Area between lungs on top of diaphragm

5

What is the mediastinum

The inter-plural space

6

What surrounds the heart

Pericardium. Fibrous outer layer and double serous layer

7

Between which ribs is the heart located in dogs and cats

The third and seventh rib

8

Between which ribs is the heart located for horses and ruminants

Between the second and sixth rib

9

What are the layers of the heart

Pericardium myocardium and endocardium

10

What is endocardium made up of

Simple squamous epithelium

11

What is pericardial effusion

Abnormal accumulation of serous fluid between visceral and Parietal layers. Outer fibrous layer is not elastic, thus heart cannot fully explain during contractions. Pressure is relieved by aspiration of serous fluid.

12

Describe the systemic circulation of blood

Blood flow between heart and body tissues

13

Describe the pulmonary circulation blood flow

Blood flow between heart and lungs

14

Describe blood flow through the body

One-way flow through the heart and blood vessels. Valves in heart and veins prevent backflow

15

What is the function of the coronary vessels

Service the heart tissue, located on external surface. Can be considered part of systemic circulation

16

What is a systole

A cardiac contraction

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What is a diastole

Cardiac relaxation

18

What are auricles

Flaps of the atria

19

What are coronary vessels

Vessels that service heart tissue

20

What is the interval ventricular sulcus

It separates the ventricles

21

What is the coronary sulcus

Separates atriums

22

Which side is the tricuspid valve for the heart best auscultated on

The right side

23

Describe the hearts location

The apex Curves caudally

24

Describe the blood delivery system

The heart to the artery to the arteriole to the capillary to the venule to the vein to the heart

25

What do arteries do

Carry blood away from the heart. Oxygenated except for pulmonary circulation and umbilical vessels of fetus

26

What to capillaries do

Contact tissue cells. Directly serve cellular needs. Site of diffusion

27

What do veins do

Carry deoxygenated blood toward heart

28

What is the lumen (in blood vessel)

Central blood containing space

29

How many layers does the lumen have

Three layers in the walls of arteries and veins. Smooth muscle, connective tissue and endothelium

30

Where are the capillaries located in the lumen

In the endothelium only

31

Describe arteries

Blood under higher pressure. Thicker walls more elastic fibers and smooth muscle

32

Describe veins

Blood under lower pressure. Valves prevent backflow skeletal muscles help push blood

33

Describe capillaries

Found in all tissue except for cartilage, epithelia, cornea and lens of Eye. ligaments and tendons are poorly vascularized. Provide direct access to almost every cell

34

What are the functions of capillaries

Exchange of gasses, nutrients, waste, hormones, defense.

35

Describe fetal circulation

The placenta is an organ of gas, nutrients, waste, exchange thus blood flow to the kidneys and lungs from G.I. tract is minimal

36

Describe the umbilical cord

Vein carries oxygenated blood flow from placenta to fetus via the ductus venosus. Arteries carry deoxygenated blood from fetus to placenta. Blood entering the right atrium can bypass lungs by the foreman ovale or ductus arteriosus.

37

What is pda

Patent ductus arteriosus. Vessel. Does not close afterbirth causing in adequate oxygenation. Most common congenital heart problem and dogs

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What are the clinical signs of PDA

Shortness of breath, coughing, general weakness, exercise intolerance

39

How do you diagnose PDA

Auscultation for a murmur or an electro cardiogram

40

What is the treatment for PDA

Surgically close the ductus arteriosus

41

What are the signs of persistent right aortic arch condition

During normal fetal development or changes in the blood vessels. This vascular ring should've disappeared prior to birth it remains constricting the esophagus in the area dorsal to the heart.

42

What is it called when the esophagus is constricted between the ligamentum arteriosum and the aorta

PRAA

43

What is in atrial systole

The contraction of the atria. Blood moves from atria to the ventricles

44

What is a Ventricular systole

The contraction of ventricles. Blood moves from ventricles to arteries

45

What is an atrial diastole

The relaxation of the atria. Atria refills with blood

46

What is a ventricular diastole

The relaxation of ventricles. Ventricles begin to refill with blood

47

What is the lub sound mean

The closing of the AV valves. Mitral valve is best heard on the left side. Tricuspid valve is best heard on the right side

48

What is the dup sound mean

The closing of the semilunar valve. Both pulmonary and aortic valve's best heard on left side

49

How does the heart conduct

Cardiac muscles able to generate its own electrical impulse to signal contraction

50

What does the sinoatrial node do

Initiates heart beat by depolarizing the cells. Depolarization and eventual repolarization continue throughout the heart.

51

What is the order of cardiac conduction

The SA node to the AV node to the AV bundles to the purkinje fibers

52

How do you measure cardiac conduction

Measured by an electrocardiogram

53

Why is there a delay between the depolarization of the SA node and the AV node

So the atrium can fill with blood

54

What does an electrocardiogram do

It measures cardiac electrical activity to depolarization and repolarization

55

What is the cardiac output

Amount of blood that leaves the heart. Cardiac output is equal to heart rate plus stroke volume

56

What is the heart rate dependent on

The rate of SA node depolarization. The cardiac output is influenced by exercise, autonomic nervous system and blood pressure

57

Describe digital pulses in horses

Normally the pulse is weak. If there's a significant problem in the foot such as abscess or laminitis pulse will be stronger due to constriction of vessels in foot

58

What does afferent mean

Sends signal towards an organ

59

What does efferent mean

Sends a signal away from an organ

60

What is mitral valve disease

Mitral valve doesn't close properly. Causes endocarditis or endocardiosis, ruptured cordae tendinae. Endocardiosis is most common in small dogs. Can lead to pulmonary edema and congestive heart failure

61

What is congestive heart failure

Progressive disorder due to problems with blood flow through heart. Blood backs up. Right side causes ascites and left causes pulmonary edema