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Flashcards in Comparitive Anatomy Deck (112):

Briefly describe birds

Highly evolved reptiles, and endothermic, Oviparous amniotes


Briefly describe reptiles that are non-avian

Ectothermic oviparous and Viviparous amniotes


Briefly describe amphibians

Ectothermic, oviparous, viviparous and pulmocutaneous respiration


Briefly describe fish

Ectothermic, oviparous, viviparous, gills


Describe five key differences of a birds respiratory system then versus a mammal

1.entrance to trachea is the glottis at the base of the tongue different then the opening to the digestive tract.
2. No diaphragm expiration relies on their abdominal muscles.
3. lungs are rigid and do not expand when filled with air.
4. air sacs fill body cavities and spaces in large bones.
5. have continuous flow of air through the lungs (not tidal)


What is a Choana

Slit between nasal and oral cavities


What is a glottis

Opening to larynx. Contains no epiglottis. Sound is produced in syrinx


Where is the syrinx located

Right before the bronchial split


How many air sacs do most birds have

Nine in addition to two lungs


Where does gas exchange occurs in birds

Gas exchange only occurs in the lungs. Air sacs of her storage lightning the body for flight and thermal regulation


Describe the cycle of gas exchange in birds

Gas exchange incurs in the small parabronchi that are surrounded by capillories. Two cycles are required to expel the air. Due to high efficiency of respiratory system birds are very sensitive to toxic fumes and inhalant anesthesia


Describe the respiratory system of non-avian reptiles

Lack a true diaphragm. Use ribs and abs. Require much less oxygen due to low metabolism.


Where is the glottis located in non-avian reptiles

At the bottom of the tongue. Snake can move the glottis laterally while feeding.


Do snakes have both lungs

No usually they only have the right lung


How do aquatic turtles breathe underwater

Cloacal respiration


Describe the respiratory system of amphibians

Simple lungs with few to no lobes. Reduced/no ribs force air down by pushing up floor of mouth-- positive pressure breathing. Also respire through skin and mouth thus surfaces must remain moist


Describe the cardiovascular system as birds

Four chambered heart with no mixing of deoxygenated and oxygenated blood.


What are three key differences in the cardio system of birds versus mammals

1. Large arteries supplying flight muscles and wings.
2. Some birds have a countercurrent heat exchange system in legs to reduce heat loss and conserve energy. 3. Birds and reptiles have a renal portal system which can shunt blood from the caudal region to kidneys or vena cava


What's different about the leukocytes in birds and reptiles

Neutrophils are actually called heterophils


What's different about The erythrocytes in birds and reptiles

There oval and nucleated


What's different about thrombocytes in birds and reptiles

There nucleated


Where is the heart in reptiles

The location varies with the species. Snake hearts are mobile to comedy ingestion of large pray.


Do reptile hearts have three chambers or four

Most have three Chambers but ventricle is partially divided to reduce mixing


What can aquatic reptiles and feeding snakes do

Shunt blood away from the pulmonary circulation.


Describe a reptiles well developed lymphatic system

Nodes are replaced by hearts which pump. Venipuncture samples often contain lymph due to large vessels nearby


What is a cloaca

Common caudal opening for digestive reproductive and urinary systems. Found in monotreme mammals, birds and reptiles and amphibians


What is the monotreme mammal

Egg laying


What are the three regions of the cloaca

Coprodeum: terminus of rectum
Urodeum: terminus of ureter and vas deferens.
Proctodeum: connects with bursa of fabricus


What is the bursa of fabricius

Found only in birds. Largest lymphoid organ. Site of maturation of B cells


What is the primary nitrogenous waste in a birds urinary system

Uric acid which is relatively insoluble and non-toxic. Important for amniotic egg and water conservation


Describe the kidney of a bird

Has three divisions and lacks a renal pelvis


Do birds have a bladder

No they have no bladder and no urethra


What is a bird mute

Bird poop. Urine is the liquid portion, uric acid is the pasty portion, feces is the color variation.


What percent of birds have penises



How do birds copulate without a penis

They copulate through a cloacal kiss.


How does reproductive organ size fluctuate

With the breeding season; hormonaly influenced and gonads are small during non breeding seasons.


Describe male birds

Testes are internal and sperm is stored in seminal vesicles At the base of vas deferens in the cooler location


What is seminal fluid produced by in male birds

Seminiferous tubules


Describe the reproductive system in female birds

Right ovary is usually vestigial. During breeding season one ovum is ovulated every 24 hrs until clutch is complete. The oviduct is divided into 5 regions which help the amniotic egg


What is the infundibulum in the female reproductive tract

Egg and yolk ovulated; site of fermentation


What is the magnum of the female reproductive tract in a bird

Layers of albumin (egg white) added


What is the isthmus in the female reproductive tract

Keratinized shell membranes added


What is the shell gland/uterus in female birds

Adds more albumin and adds the hard shell and pigmentation


What is the vagina in the female bird

Secrets mucus to assist in egg laying, also the site of sperm storage.


What is a clutch

# of eggs laid- varies by species


What determines egg layers

Have a set # of follicles that develop, hence the # of eggs laid


What are inderterminant egg layers

Will continue to lay eggs if some are removed


What is egg binding

Egg stuck in oviduct


What must happen to eggs

Must be kept warm and moist throughout incubation period.


What is a brood patch

Well vascularized area on lower stomach


What stimulates the formation of a brood patch

Prolactin and estrogen


What is hatching assisted by

The egg tooth and strong neck muscles which both atrophy after hatching.


What is a altricial

Eyes closed, no feathers. Require a lot of parental care before leaving nest (parrots)


What is semialtricial

Eyes open or closed, covered with down and immobile. (Hawk and owls)


What is precocial

Eyes open, covered with down, mobile and leave nest quickly (geese, ducks, chicken)


Describe a turtles bladder

Short wide urethras


What do terrestrial and embryonic reptiles produce

Uric acid.


What do aquatic animals produce

Urea in ammonia.


Describe male reproduction in reptiles

Internal fertilization
Have internal testes
Have copulatory organs


Describe crocodilian and chelonian reproductive organs

Have a mound of erectile tissue on floor of cloaca. Forms through to transfer sperm and has no urinary function.


Describe snakes and lizards

Have hemipenes which form through for sperm transfer


Describe hemipenes

Penises of snakes and lizards.
Each attached to a testis: transfers sperm to female.
Some have hooks and spines to improve success.


How do you sex snakes

Stick a sexing probe in


Why do snakes have two penises

Females want to mate and can store sperm for 5 yrs. they choose best male to fertilize the eggs and they can detect MHC molecules


Describe female reproduction in reptiles

Paired ovaries and oviducts.
Oviduct structure and function is similar to birds
Most species are oviparous - viviparous
Most species do not incubate or protect eggs.


How does temperature determine offspring

Typically cooler temperatures during incubation form males


Describe bird integument

Keratinized thin epidermis.
Dermis with smooth muscle, fat, blood vessels, nervous, feather follicles
No sweat or sebaceous gland


What grows continuously on a bird

Beak and claws


What is the uropygial gland

At base of tail and secretes oil.


Describe feathers

Unique to birds
Likely first evolved for thermoregulation in dinosaurs then flight.
Important to flight, thermoregulation, sensory, camouflage, social behaviour


What are contour feathers

Flight feathers that can be moved by muscles attached to the follicle


What are semi plume feathers

Rashi's lacking barbules and hooks, under the contours, aid in insulation and Boyance in aquatic birds


What are Filoplume feathers

Plays a sensory role in feather movement


What is a bristle

Sensory roll, usually located in facial region


What is a Downy feather

Insulation, located under contours


What is the blood feather

Normal developing feather that has a blood supply in the shaft. Also called pinfeather. Can bleed a lot of broken


Describe the adaptations for flight that the bird skeletal system has

1. Reduction in number of bones.
2.Fusion of bones into plates to strengthen the skeleton.
3.Reduced density of compact bone. Internal braces to support thin margins.
4.loss of bone matrix: hollow bones pneumatic bones that are filled with air sacs


Describe the skull of a bird

Teeth replaced by keratinized beak that's covering bone, beak varies with diet. Many species have a joint between the maxilla and skull called the craniofacial hinge which increases mobility during feeding. Large orbit for large eyes and to lighten skull, some have Sclerotic ring to support the eye


Describe a cervical vertebrae

(Parakeets) have 11 to 25 (swans), joints allow much movement


Describe the thoracic vertebrae of a bird

Rigid, supports ribs. Cranial ribs not attached to sternum. Urcinate processes connect ribs caudally


Describe what the distal lumbar, sacral and first few coccygeal vertebrae do

Fuse to form the synsacrum which supports legs and acts as a shock absorber during landing


What do the distal coccygeal vertebrae fused to form

Pygostyle that supports tailfeathers


Describe the sternum of a bird

Protects thoracic region, has a keel for flight muscle attachment.
The contraction of the pectoralis muscle lowers wings in the down stroke.
in the contraction of the Supracorcoideus muscle raises wings in the upstroke


What is the preferred site for intramuscular injections in the bird



What is the carpometacarpus

The carpals metacarpals are fused to form it


How many phalanges do birds have in their wing

Two digits. First digit forms aLula that assists in landing and takeoff. Second and third digit supports primary wing feathers.


What is the pelvis of the bird composed of

Ilium, ischium, pubis. Non Fused distally to facilitate egg development in uterus and egg laying


Describe the legs of a bird

Fused bones: the tibiotarsus (drumstick) and the tarsometatarsus.
Proximal to tarsometatarsus is muscle, distal is tendons


Why don't birds fall off their perch when they're asleep

Birds cannot fall off a perch when asleep. Each toe is connected to a cord inside the leg. When the leg is bent the cord stretch tight and pull the toes around the branch, it takes more energy to leave the perch then to stay there.


What are birds feet considered

Bipedal, digitigrade. Most species have four toes in various arrangements


What is the anisodactyl

Most common
Mainly perching birds


What is a zygodactyl

Many perching birds
Parrots, cuckoos


What are rooster spurs

Calcar protruding from the tarsometatarsal bone. Surrounded by an extensive horny keratinized layer


Describe the birds digestive system

Have an efficient system to meet high caloric commands, birds assimilate 60 to 99% of food eaten. Many have salivary gland to Morrison food and start starch digestion


What is the use of the esophagus in birds

Moistens and transports food


What is the use of the crop in birds

Used to store food. Can be an enlargement of the esophagus, single pouch or double pouch. Pigeons and doves form pigeon milk from mucosal lining to feed hatchlings. Owls lack a crop and regurgitate pellets.


What are the two divisions of the stomach in birds

Proventriculus and the gizzard


What is the proventriculus

Glandular stomach which is the site of chemical digestion. Low pH


What is the gizzard

Muscular stomach, grinding of food such as bones seeds or scales. Some species ingest grit to improve mechanical digestion


Describe the small intestine of a bird

Digestion, absorption, length. depends on diet short for carnivores and fruit eaters but long for seed eaters. Pancreas add digestive enzymes and bicarbonate.


What are the caecae

Paired sacs at junction of si and li. Present in some species. Function in water reabsorption and cellulose digestion


Describe the large intestine

Reabsorption of minerals and water


Describe the cloaca

Muted are released out vent


Describe the integumentary system for reptiles

Adaptation for dry environment: epidermis forms keratinized scales and horny plates called scutes. Claws. Some species went back to the water so have evolved aquatic adaptations such as webbed feet.


What is ecdysis

Shedding skin. Done 2-4 times per year depending on nutrition, age. Etc. Prior to shedding color gets dull and eye caps opaque. Important that scale over eyes are shed. Can lead to infection/scratched eyes.


What is dysecdysis

Difficulty shedding. Can be due to low humidity.. Parasites etc


What are the three distinct skull types

Anapsid, synapsid, diapsid


What is anapsid

Lack temporal fenestrae - chelonians


What is synapsid

Temporal fenestrae pair. - mammals


What is diapsid

2 temporal fenestrae pair. Non chelonian reptiles including birds.


Describe the skeletal system of a snake

Composed of complex skull, vertebrae, and 150+ ribs,. Mandibles held together by ligaments not fused highly mobile jaw to assist in feeding


Describe the chelonian skeletal system

Shell composed Bone covered in scutes. Carapace is the dorsal and plasTron is the ventral. Vertebrae and ribs fused into shell. Locking teeth, I have a Horty beak.