Flashcards in Chapter IV Terminology Deck (37):
Sent to stop the development of Fort Duquesne (Pittsburg) by the governor of Virginia during the French and Indian war.
Led another expedition from Virginia ending in disastrous defeat. Indians ravage the colonial frontiers and the British invasion of French Canada was repulsed in 1756 and 1757.
Albany Plan of Union (1754)
A failed plan developed by Benjamin Franklin to provide intercolonial government, a system for recruiting troops, and collecting taxes for a common defense. Set a precedent for more revolutionary congresses in the 1770's.
Peace of Paris (1763)
Great Britain acquired French Canada and Spanish Florida. Spain acquired France's huge western territory, Louisiana, and claims west of the Mississippi River.
The lack of law enforcement. Particularly the navigation laws before the Peace of Paris in 1763.
George III (crown)
King George III and Parliament wanted to solve Britain's financial problems after the French and Indian War by making the colonies pay for the maintenance of the British Empire.
The dominant political party in Parliament.
Pontiac's Rebellion (1763)
Britain sent troops to squash Chief Pontiac's rebellion of the westward movement of European settlers. Native Americans destroyed settlements from New York to Virginia.
Proclamation of 1763
The British issued a proclamation prohibiting colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains after Pontiac's rebellion.
Sugar Act (1764)
Also known as the Revenue Act of 1764. Raises duties on foreign sugar and certain luxuries. A companion law provided stricter enforcement of the Navigation Acts.
Quartering Act (1765)
Requires colonists to provide food and living quarters for British soliders.
Stamp Act (1765)
A tax placed on most printed papers in the colonies such as legal documents, newspapers, pamphlets, and advertisement. This was long in use in England.
A Virginia lawyer that stood up in the House of Burgesses and said "no taxation without representation"
Stamp Act Congress
A congress of nine colonies called by James Otis to protest the stamp act. Determined only their own elected representatives had the authority to approve taxes.
Sons and Daughters of Liberty
A secret organization that intimidated tax agents.
Declaratory Act (1766)
Asserted Parliament had the right to tax and make laws for the colonies "in all cases whatsoever"
Townshend Acts (1767)
Taxed colonial imports of tea, glass, and paper. Made crown official's salaries independent of colonial assemblies. Provided the search of private homes.
Writs of assistance
A general license to search anywhere.
Argued "no taxation without representation" was an essential principle of English law in Letters From a Farmer in Pennsylvania.
Organized the Committees of Correspondence.
Called for the colonies to protest the stamp act.
Massachusetts Circular Letter
Written by James Otis and Samuel Adams. Urged colonies to petition Parliament to repeal the Townshed Acts. Britain tightened its grip in response and colonists boycotted British goods again.
Lord Frederick North
Prime minister of parliament that repealed the Townshed Acts.
Boston Massacre (1770)
The killing of five people in Boston. The soldiers were defended by colonial lawyer John Adams.
African American killed during the Boston massacre.
Committees of Correspondence
Organized committees that exchanges suspicion of potentially threatening British activities.
A British ship that caught a good number of smugglers. A group of colonist dressed as Indians and burned the ship by Rhode Island.
Tea Act (1773)
Made the price of tea cheaper than smuggled Dutch tea (even with tax included)
Boston Tea Party (1773)
Dumped tea into the harbor to show defense of liberties. Some colonists though the destruction of private property was too radical.
Coercive acts + Quebec act in response to the Boston Tea party.
Coercive Acts (1774)
Port act: closed Boston port until the cost of the tea was paid.
Massachusetts Government Act: lowered the Massachusetts legislature's power.
The Administration of Justice Act: allowed royal officials accused of crimes to be tried in England
Quartering act: allowed British troops to be quartered in all private homes in all colonies
Quebec Act (1774)
Established Roman Catholicism as the official religion of Quebec, set up a government without a representative assembly, and extended Quebec's boundary to the Ohio river
Human reasoning could solve most of humanity's problems. John Locke was an important philosopher during this time.
The belief that God established natural laws in creating the universe and divine intervention in human affairs was minimal.
The belief that actions should be based on knowledge rather than religious faith.
Argued the government is supreme but it is bound to follow "natural laws" based on human rights, sovereignty resides with the people, and citizens have the right and obligation to revolt against any government that failed to protect their rights.