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Flashcards in Chemistry Powerpoint Deck (154):
1

Group of chemicals used in addition to vascular and cavity embalming fluids

Accessory Chemical

2

Accessory Chemicals include but are not limited to

Hardening compounds
Preservative Powders
Sealing agents
Mold Preventative Agents
Pack Application Agents

3

Accessory Chemicals are anything not ________________

Arterially Injected and not cavity

4

Chemicals added to the embalming solution to deal with varying demands predicated upon the type of embalming, the environment and the embalming fluid to be used

Modifying Agents

5

Modifying Agents come how?

Pre-mixed in a bottle

6

Fluid injected for purposes other than preservation and disinfection

Supplemental Fluid

7

Supplemental Fluids come generally fall into one of three categories

Pre-injection
Co-injection
Humectants/Restorative Fluids

8

Supplemental fluids come how?

In a separate bottle

9

What is Arrhenius' definition of an Acid?

A substance that yields hydrogen or hydronium ions in a/an water/aqeuous solution

10

What is the Bronsted-Lowry definition of an Acid?

A substance that donates a proton

11

What is the Lewis definition of an Acid?

A substance that accepts a pair of electrons

12

Dyes which aid in restoring a life-like surface pigmentation to a body and also stain the body tissue cells

Active Dyes
Staining Dyes
Cosmetic Dyes

13

Are used to distinguish the difference between various chemicals

Passive Dyes

14

Natural or synthetic that is used to impart a color to another material

Dye

15

A wax-like material produced by saponification of body fat in a body buried in alkaline soil

Adipocere (Grave Wax)

16

Adipocere is the

End product

17

What is the process leading to adipocere?

Saponification

18

Thre reaction between a fat and a strong base to produce glycerl and the salt of a fatty acid (soap)

Saponification

19

Intravascular; the increase of viscosity of blood brought about by the clumping of particulate formed elements in the blood vessels

Agglutination

20

The process of converting soluble protein to insoluble protein by heating or by contact with a chemical such as an alcohol or an aldehyde

Coagulation

21

What is the general term for blood clots?

Congealing

22

A protein found throughout the body and is highly susceptible to decomposition

Albumin

23

Albumins are

Soluble

24

Albuminoids are

Insoluble

25

Proteins that have been cross-linked by preservatives to become highly unsceptible to decomposition

Albuminoids

26

A saturated hydrocarbon

Alkane

27

A hydrocarbon that has no carbon-carbon multiple bonds

Alkane

28

Formerly called the paraffin series

Alkane

29

A hydrocarbon containing a double bond

Alkene

30

A hydrocarbon containing a triple bond

Alkyne

31

This is less dangerous than beta and Gamma radiation

Alpha Radiation

32

This is more dangerous than alpha radiation but less dangerous than gamma rays

Beta Radiation

33

This is more dangerous than Beta and Alpha radiation.

Gamma Radiation

34

Gamma radiation is a type of

Electromagnetic Radiation

35

A building up process

Anabolism

36

Breaking down process

Catabolism

37

The study of all the enzymatically controlled reactions in a living cell

Metabolism

38

Body temperature in life is

98.6

39

Directly after death, the body temperature _____

Rises

40

The immediate rising of body temperature after death is which process

Anabolism

41

The body temperature after death maxes out at about

100 degrees

42

The rise in temperature after death is also known as

Postmortem Caloricity

43

After maxing out at 100 degrees, the body temperature drops back down to 98.6, which is known as

Catabolism

44

After the completion of catabolism, the body temperature drops below 98.6, which is known as

Livor Mortis

45

Ingredient of embalming fluids that retards the natural postmortem tendency of blood to become more viscous or prevents adverse reactions between blood and other embalming chemicals

Anticoagulant

46

Anticoagulants can be

Pre-injection or co-injection

47

Co-injections are injected when?

With the arterial fluid

48

The smallest particle of an element that has all the properties of the element

Atom

49

The smallest unit of a compound which can exist alone

Molecule

50

An aggregation of atoms, specifically a chemical of two or more atoms which form a specific chemical substance

Molecule

51

What does an anticoagulant do?

Lubricates
Prevents clots
Attempts to break up clots

52

What do water conditioners do?

Lubricates
Prevents clots
Attempts to break up clots
Treats the minerals in the water

53

What kind of minerals are in the water that need to be treated by water conditioners?

Calcium and iron

54

The tabular arrangement of the elements in order of increasing atomic number so that the columns of elements represent the periodic recurrence of elements with similar properties

Periodic Table

55

The number of protons and neutrons added together

Atomic Mass

56

The total positive charge on a nucleus is determined by the number of protons. This is called the

Atomic Number

57

What gives the atom its identity

Atomic Number

58

What is the Arrhenius definition of a Base?

A substance that yields hydroxide ions in aqueous solution

59

What is the Bronsted-Lowry definition of a Base?

A substance that accepts a proton. An acid is a proton donor and a base is a proton acceptor

60

According to Bronsted-Lowry, an acid is a

Proton donor

61

According to Bronsted-Lowry, a base is a

Proton Acceptor

62

What is the Lewis definition of a Base?

A substance that donates a pair of electrons

63

A substance consisting of two or more atoms combined chemically in definite proportions by mass

Compound

64

A combination of two or more substances not chemically united and in no definite proportion by mass

Mixture

65

A homogenous mixture of one or more substances (solutes) dissolved in a sufficient quantity of solvent

Solution

66

Occurs when a red blood cell is placed in a hypertonic solution which will cause it to shrink

Crenation

67

Occurs when a cell is placed into a hypotonic solution which causes the cell to burst

Hemolysis

68

Centi

1/100th

69

Centimer

1/100th of a meter

70

Deci

1/10th

71

Decimeter

1/10th of a meter

72

Milli

1/1000th

73

Millimeter

1/1000th of a meter

74

One in which a new substance or substances are produced that have entirely different properties from the original substance because the chemical composition has changed

Chemical Change

75

A change in the form or state of matter without any change in chemical composition

Physical Change

76

Describe what kind of change Rigor Mortis is

Both a physical and chemical change - the best answer between the two is chemical change, but the ABSOLUTE best answer is a PHYSIOCHEMICAL CHANGE

77

Separation of compounds into simpler substances by the action of microbial and/or autolytic enzymes

Decomposition

78

Decomposition of proteins by enzymes of aerobic bacteria

Decay

79

Decomposition of proteins by the action of enzymes from anaerobic bacteria

Putrefaction

80

A red dye derived from the action of bromine of fluorescein

Eosin

81

Eosin is very commonly used in

Arterial Fluids

82

A common dye which is used to test for blood circulation

Fluorescein

83

When fluorescein is used to test blood circulation, where is it seen?

In the eye

84

Chemicals having the capability of displacing an unpleasant odor or of altering an unpleasant odor so that it is converted to a more pleasant one

Deodorants
Masking Agents
Perfuming Agents

85

Deodorants were HISTORICALLY called

Reodorants

86

The movement of molecules or other particles in solution from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration until uniform concentration is reached

Diffusion

87

Passage of some components of the injected embalming solution from an intravascular to an extra vascular location

Diffusion Arterial Solution

88

Movements of the embalming solutions from the capillaries into the interstitial fluids

Diffusion Arterial Solution

89

The movement of embalming solutions from the point of injection throughout the arterial system and into the capillaries

Fluid Distribution

90

An agent, usually chemical, applied to inanimate objects/surfaces to destroy disease causing microbial agents but usually not bacterial spores

Disinfectant

91

The destruction and/or inhibition of most pathogenic organisms and their products in or on the body

Disinfection

92

The act of mixing two insoluble liquids

Emulsification

93

A mixture of two insoluble liquids, one being dispersed throughout the other in small droplets

Emulsion

94

A mixture of formaldehyde gas dissolved in water which consists of 37% by weight, 40% by volume, and contains 7% methyl alcohol

Formalin

95

The amount of heat necessary to change 1 gram of solid to gram of liquid state at the melting point

Heat of Fusion

96

The amount of heat necessary to change 1 gram of a substance from a liquid to a gaseous state at the boiling point

Heat of Vaporization

97

Water loving

Hydrophilic

98

Water fearing

Hydrophobic

99

Absorbing moisture readily

Hygroscopic

100

The strength of embalming fluids indicated by the number of grams of pure formaldehyde gas dissolved in 100 mL of solution

Index

101

Refers to a percentage

Index

102

All embalming fluids will contain some methanol. Why?

It is closely associated with the manufacture of formalin
It stabilizes formalin
Both a solvent and a germicide

103

What are the other names for methanol?

Methyl Alcohol
Wood Alcohol

104

A solvent and a disinfectant in embalming fluid

Ethyl Alcohol (Ethanol)

105

Ethyl Alcohol is noted for its ability to

Dehydrate Tissue

106

When a word ends in oL, it means it is an

Alcohol

107

A neutral subatomic particle with a mass similar to that of a proton

Neutron

108

Where is a neutron normally found?

In the nucleus

109

A subatomic particle normally found in the nucleus of an atom

Proton

110

A proton has a relative mass number of

1

111

A proton has an electrical charge of

+1

112

A subatomic particle with a negative electrical and a mass that is 1/1,857 that of a proton

Electron

113

Electrons are found where?

Outside the nucleus of an atom

114

A deposit of an insoluble or very slightly soluble solid substance in solution

Precipitate

115

The linking together of monomers or basic chemical units to form a polymer

Polymerization

116

A polymer of formaldehyde that exists as a solid

Paraformaldehyde

117

Paraformaldehyde is almost

Pure Formaldehyde

118

Paraformaldehyde is insoluble, so it cannot be used in

Embalming fluids

119

Where is paraformaldehyde commonly used in?

Powdered preservative compositions such as hardening compounds and embalming powder

120

The measure of hydrogen ion concentration of a solution

pH

121

0-6.9

acid

122

7

neutral

123

7.1-14

Basic

124

Primary stage of flaccidity is

7.4 - 7.0

125

Rigor

7.0 - 6.0 - 7.0

126

Secondary stage of flaccidity is

7.0 - 7.4

127

Putrefaction occurs at what pH?

8.0

128

an aromatic alcohol and is an excellent disinfectant

Phenol

129

Penetrates tissues very well and bleaches tissue where required such as surface discoloration

Phenol

130

Phenol is also known as

Carbolic Acid

131

Phenol is a derivitave of

Coal Tars

132

What is the standard used to evaluate the efficiency of other germicides?

Phenol

133

PC stands for

Phenol Coefficient

134

Phenol is both a

Disinfectant and Antiseptic

135

A technique invented by Dr. Gunter vin Hagens used to preserve bodies for anatomical studies

Plastination

136

Describe plastination

The embalmed body is placed into a solvent bath containing acetone and reactive polymers.

137

What does the vaccum remove in plastination?

Water, fatty tissues, and acetone

138

Pastination is a form of

Permanent preservation

139

What is the universal solvent

Water

140

A substance dissolved in solvent to form a solution; the component of a solution present in a lesser amount

Solute

141

A homogenous mixture of one or more substances (solutes) dissolved in a sufficient quantity of solvent

Solution

142

The process of dissolving

Solvation

143

A substance which does the dissolving in a solution; the component of a solution present in a greater amount

Solvent

144

Oven or appliance for sterilizing; an autoclave that disinfect by steam under pressure at temperatures above 100 degrees C

Sterilizers

145

Process that renders a substance free of all microorganisms

Sterilization

146

Are written below and to the right of the number

Subscripts

147

What do subscripts represent

The definite proportion by mass

148

Are written above and to the right of the number

Superscripts

149

What do superscripts represent?

The oxidation number

150

The dissolving of a substance in alcohol

Tincture

151

OL

Alcohol

152

AL

Aldehyde

153

A gas, especially the gaseous form of a substance that at ordinary temperatures is a liquid or solid

Vapor

154

The physical change from a liquid into a gas

Vaporization